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Table Of Contents

1.1 The Speech Chain
1.2.1 Speech Coding
1.2.2 Text-to-Speech Synthesis
1.2.3 Speech Recognition and Other Pattern Matching Problems
1.2.4 Other Speech Applications
1.3 Our Goal for this Text
2.2 Models for Speech Production
2.3 More Refined Models
3.1 The Human Ear
3.2 Perception of Loudness
3.3 Critical Bands
3.4 Pitch Perception
3.5 Auditory Masking
3.6 Complete Model of Auditory Processing
4.1 Short-Time Energy and Zero-Crossing Rate
4.2 Short-Time Autocorrelation Function (STACF)
4.3 Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT)
4.4 Sampling the STFT in Time and Frequency
4.5 The Speech Spectrogram
4.6 Relation of STFT to STACF
4.7 Short-Time Fourier Synthesis
4.8 Short-Time Analysis is Fundamental to our Thinking
5.1 Definition of the Cepstrum and Complex Cepstrum
5.2 The Short-Time Cepstrum
5.3.1 Computation Using the DFT
5.3.2 z-Transform Analysis
5.3.3 Recursive Computation of the Complex Cepstrum
5.4 Short-Time Homomorphic Filtering of Speech
5.5 Application to Pitch Detection
5.6.1 Compensation for Linear Filtering
5.6.2 Liftered Cepstrum Distance Measures
5.6.3 Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients
5.7 The Role of the Cepstrum
6.1 Linear Prediction and the Speech Model
6.2 Computing the Prediction Coefficients
6.4 LPC Spectrum
6.5.1 Roots of Prediction Error System Function
6.5.2 LSP Coefficients
6.5.3 Cepstrum of Vocal Tract Impulse Response
6.5.4 PARCOR Coefficients
6.6 The Role of Linear Prediction
7.1.1 Uniform Quantization Noise Analysis
7.1.2 μ-Law Quantization
7.1.3 Non-Uniform and Adaptive Quantization
7.2 Digital Speech Coding
7.3.2 Delta Modulation Coding the ADPCM Parameters Quality vs. Bit Rate for ADPCM Coders Basic Analysis-by-Synthesis Coding System Perceptual Weighting of the Difference Signal Generating the Excitation Signal Multi-Pulse Excitation Linear Prediction (MPLP) Code-Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) Long-Delay Predictors in Analysis-by-Synthesis Coders Pitch, Gain, and V/UV Detection Vocal Tract System Estimation
7.4.2 Residual-Excited Linear Predictive Coding
7.4.3 Mixed Excitation Systems
7.5 Frequency-Domain Coders
7.6 Evaluation of Coders
8.1.1 Document Structure Detection
8.1.2 Text Normalization
8.1.3 Linguistic Analysis
8.1.4 Phonetic Analysis
8.1.5 Homograph Disambiguation
8.1.6 Letter-to-Sound (LTS) Conversion
8.1.7 Prosodic Analysis
8.2.1 Early Speech Synthesis Approaches
8.2.2 Word Concatenation Synthesis
8.2.3 Articulatory Methods of Synthesis
8.2.4 Terminal Analog Synthesis of Speech
8.3.1 Choice of Concatenation Units
8.3.2 From Text to Diphones
8.3.3 Unit Selection Synthesis
9.1 The Problem of Automatic Speech Recognition
9.2.1 Recognition Feature Set
9.2.2 The Recognition Task
9.2.3 Recognition Training
9.2.4 Testing and Performance Evaluation
9.3.1 Mathematical Formulation of the ASR Problem
9.3.2 The Hidden Markov Model
9.3.3 Step 1 — Acoustic Modeling
9.3.4 Step 2 — The Language Model
9.4 Representative Recognition Performance
9.5 Challenges in ASR Technology
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Foundations and TrendsR

Foundations and TrendsR

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Published by Bhawani Deori

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Published by: Bhawani Deori on Sep 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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