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AP Human Geo, Population Geography

AP Human Geo, Population Geography

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Population Geography
Population GeographyPopulation GeographyPopulation GeographyPopulation Geography is the study of spatial variationsspatial variationsspatial variationsspatial variations in distribution, density, composition, andgrowth of human numbers on earth.It is important because it links all other aspects of geography together.DemographyDemographyDemographyDemographyDemography is the study of population characteristics.It is significant because:1.
 
There are more people living todaytodaytodaytoday than any other time in history.2.
 
There’s been a population explosion since World War IIWorld War IIWorld War IIWorld War II.3.
 
There is an inverse relationshipinverse relationshipinverse relationshipinverse relationship between population growthpopulation growthpopulation growthpopulation growth and resourcesresourcesresourcesresources, i.e., there are toomany people in places without enough resources to support them and too few people in areaswith over abundant resources.Thomas MalthusThomas MalthusThomas MalthusThomas MalthusThomas Malthus, was a British clergyman/economist.He came up with the Malthusian Theory of Population Growth. The salient points of his theory were1.
 
FoodFoodFoodFood production increased at an arithmetic ratioarithmetic ratioarithmetic ratioarithmetic ratio (1, 2, 3…) while populationpopulationpopulationpopulation increased at anexponentialexponentialexponentialexponential ratio (1, 2, 4, 8, …).2.
 
Population growthPopulation growthPopulation growthPopulation growth would outstrip foodfoodfoodfood supply, and mass starvationstarvationstarvationstarvation would follow.3.
 
Man is incapable of controlling his own numbers, so natural calamitiesnatural calamitiesnatural calamitiesnatural calamities such as floods andepidemics serve to control/reducecontrol/reducecontrol/reducecontrol/reduce his numbers.His theory was wrong in a number of ways:1.
 
He failed to foresee the agrarian revolutionagrarian revolutionagrarian revolutionagrarian revolution that would greatly increase food production.2.
 
Man has proven he is capable of controlling his numbers, such as in ChinaChinaChinaChina with the one-childper family policy.3.
 
The population has not grown as rapidly as he predicted.Components of Population ChangeComponents of population change are birthsbirthsbirthsbirths and deathsdeathsdeathsdeaths, immigrantsimmigrantsimmigrantsimmigrants and emigrantsemigrantsemigrantsemigrants. P (people) + B(births) – D(deaths) + I(immigrants) – E(emigrants) = population.Fertility and MortalityFertilityFertilityFertilityFertility is the number of live birthslive birthslive birthslive births in a defined population. It is calculated using two main indices:
 
Crude Birth RateCrude Birth RateCrude Birth RateCrude Birth Rate (CBR): (The total number of live births/the total population) × 100
 
Total Fertility RateTotal Fertility RateTotal Fertility RateTotal Fertility Rate (TFR): (The total number of live births/women of childbearing age (15-49))× 100MortalityMortalityMortalityMortality is the number of deathsdeathsdeathsdeaths in a defined population. It is calculated using two main indices:
 
 
Population Geography
 
Crude Death RateCrude Death RateCrude Death RateCrude Death Rate (CDR): (The total number of deaths/the total population) × 100
 
Infant Mortality RateInfant Mortality RateInfant Mortality RateInfant Mortality Rate (IMR): (The number of infant deaths/the number of live births) × 100Factors Affecting Fertility1.
 
ReligionReligionReligionReligion: most major religions favor family developmentfamily developmentfamily developmentfamily development so very religious populations usuallyhave a high fertility.2.
 
Social customscustomscustomscustoms and taboostaboostaboostaboos, with regards to contraceptioncontraceptioncontraceptioncontraception3.
 
EducationEducationEducationEducation: There is an inverse relationshipinverse relationshipinverse relationshipinverse relationship between educationeducationeducationeducation level and the number of childrenchildrenchildrenchildren.Factors Affecting Mortality1.
 
EndogeneticEndogeneticEndogeneticEndogenetic processes: These refer to internal/bodily factors, such as diseasediseasediseasedisease.2.
 
ExogeneticExogeneticExogeneticExogenetic processes: These refer to external factors such as environmentenvironmentenvironmentenvironment.Other indices to gauge components of population change are:
 
Life ExpectancLife ExpectancLife ExpectancLife Expectancy: y: y: y: This is the number of years a child can expect to live under currentconditions. It is also the average length of lifeaverage length of lifeaverage length of lifeaverage length of life of a defined population.
 
The Natural IncreaseThe Natural IncreaseThe Natural IncreaseThe Natural Increase: It is calculated by the formula (CBR – CDR/ Total Population) × 100MigrationMigratioMigratioMigratioMigrationnnn is the movementmovementmovementmovement of people.It is classified by such indices as:
 
DistanceDistanceDistanceDistance traveled
 
ReasonReasonReasonReason fort ravel
 
Period of timetimetimetime of travel
 
VolumeVolumeVolumeVolume of migrantsConsequences of migration include:
 
Increased understandingunderstandingunderstandingunderstanding between people of different cultures
 
Increased animosityanimosityanimosityanimosity between people of different cultures
 
Changes in numbersnumbersnumbersnumbers of people at the destination and origin
 
Creation of ghettoesghettoesghettoesghettoes in urbanurbanurbanurban areas
 
InterInterInterInter----marriagesmarriagesmarriagesmarriagesRavenstein’s Laws of MigrationRavensteinRavensteinRavensteinRavenstein came up with his “laws” of migration in the 1880’s based on studies carried out in theUnited Kingdom.The laws are as follows:1.
 
The greatest body of migrants travel shortshortshortshort distances.
 
 
Population Geography
2.
 
This produces currents directed toward great commercialcommercialcommercialcommercial centers.3.
 
Each current has a compensating countercountercountercounter----currentcurrentcurrentcurrent in the opposite direction.4.
 
Both currents display similar characteristics.5.
 
Long-distance movements are directed towards greater commercial centers.6.
 
People in urban areas migrate lessurban areas migrate lessurban areas migrate lessurban areas migrate less than people in rural areas.7.
 
MalesMalesMalesMales migrate more over longlonglonglong distances and femalesfemalesfemalesfemales migrate more over shortshortshortshort distances.Additions to these laws:8.
 
Most migrantsmigrantsmigrantsmigrants are between 20202020----34343434 years of age.9.
 
People mainly move for economiceconomiceconomiceconomic reasons.10.
 
Urban housing developmentUrban housing developmentUrban housing developmentUrban housing development is inadequateinadequateinadequateinadequate for the influx of migrants so ghettoes/shanties areformed.Zipf’s Inverse Distance LawThe volumevolumevolumevolume of migrants decreasesdecreasesdecreasesdecreases with distancedistancedistancedistance from the origin.Stouffer’s Law of Intervening DistancesThe number of migrants moving from one town (a) to another (b) is directly related to the opportunitiesavailable at (b) but inversely proportional to the number of intervening opportunitiesintervening opportunitiesintervening opportunitiesintervening opportunities between (a) and(b).Push-Pull TheoryAny migration is a result of push forces at the originpush forces at the originpush forces at the originpush forces at the origin and pull forces at the destinationpull forces at the destinationpull forces at the destinationpull forces at the destination. Examples of push forces are famine, war, and poverty. Examples of pull forces are availability of food, peace, andwealth.Gravity ModelThis theory states that larger towns are more attractivelarger towns are more attractivelarger towns are more attractivelarger towns are more attractive to immigrants than smaller towns.Consequences of MigrationThese can be subdivided into three categories:1.1.1.1.
 
Demographic Consequences:Demographic Consequences:Demographic Consequences:Demographic Consequences:
 
The numbersnumbersnumbersnumbers and distributiondistributiondistributiondistribution of people within a region are changed.
 
IntermarriagesIntermarriagesIntermarriagesIntermarriages are created, leading to a new group of people.2.2.2.2.
 
Social Consequences:Social Consequences:Social Consequences:Social Consequences:
 
Migration brings different people together leading to conflictconflictconflictconflict.

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