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Labour Movement

Labour Movement

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Published by: deep_archesh on Sep 08, 2011
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Labour movement
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:navigation, search  The term
labour movement
or 
labor movement
is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and governments, in particular through theimplementation of specific laws governing labour relations. Trade unions are collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class. Manyruling classindividuals and political groups mayalso be active in and part of the labour movement.In some countries, especially theUnited KingdomandAustralia the labour movement is understood to encompass a formal "political wing", frequently known by the name labour  party, which complements the aforementioned "industrial wing".
Contents
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[edit] History
 
This section requiresexpansionwith:Apprentice laws, ," Agricultural labour laws, illegal combination, Peterloo, Chartism,Friendly societies and cooperatives, New Unionism, political party formation,socialism, anarchism, communism, craft unionism.
 
"Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never haveexisted if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration." — U.S. President Abraham Lincoln,December 3, 1861
InEurope, the labour movement began during theindustrial revolution, when agricultural  jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The idea met with greatresistance. In the 18th century and early 19th century, groups such as theTolpuddleMartyrsof your ,Dorsetwere punished andtransportedfor forming unions, which was against the laws of the time.The labour movement was active in the early to mid 19th century and various labour  parties were formed throughout the industrialised world. The works of Friedrich Engelsand Karl Marx led to the formation of the first Communist International whose policieswere summarized in theCommunist Manifesto. The key points were the right of theworkers to organize themselves, the right to an 8 hour working day etc. In 1871 theworkers in France rebelled and the Paris Commune was formed.The movement gained major impetus in the late nineteenth and early 20th centuries fromtheCatholic Social Teachingtradition which began in 1891 with the publication of Pope Leo XIII's foundational document,
, also known as "On the Condition of the Working Classes," in which he advocated a series of reforms including limits on thelength of the work day, a living wage, the elimination of child labour, the rights of labour to organize, and the duty of the state to regulate labour conditions. Following the releaseof the document, the labour movement which had previously floundered began to flourishin Europe and later in North America.
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Throughout the world, action by the labour movement has led to reforms andworkers'rights, such as the two-dayweekend,minimum wage, paid holidays,and the achievement of theeight-hour dayfor many workers. There have been many important labour activistsin modern history who have caused changes that were revolutionary at the time and arenow regarded as basic. For example, Mary Harris Jones,better known as "Mother Jones", and the National Catholic Welfare Councilwere central in the campaign to endchild labour in theUnited Statesduring the early 20th century. An active and free labour  movement is considered by many to be an important element in maintaining democracyand for economic development.
[edit] Labour parties
 
Modern labour parties originated from an upsurge in organizing activities inEuropeandEuropean coloniesduring the 19th century, such as theChartist movementinBritain during 1838–50.In 1891, localised labour parties were formed, by trade union members in the Britishcolonies of Australia. They later amalgamated to form theAustralian Labor Party (ALP). In 1893, Members of Parliament in theColony of Queensland  briefly formed the world's first labour government.TheBritish Labour Party was created as theLabour Representation Committee,as a result of an 1899 resolution by theTrade Union Congress.While archetypal labour parties are made of direct union representatives, in addition tomembers of geographical branches, some union federations or individual unions havechosen not to be represented within a labour party and/or have severed ties with they.
[edit] Labour and racial equality
"Negroes in the United States read the history of labor and find it mirrors their ownexperience. We are confronted by powerful forces telling us to rely on the good will andunderstanding of those who profit by exploiting us [...] They are shocked that actionorganizations, sit-ins, civil disobedience and protests are becoming our everyday tools, just as strikes, demonstrations and union organization became yours to insure that bargaining power genuinely existed on both sides of the table [...] Our needs are identicalto labor's needs: decent wages, fair working conditions, livable housing, old age security,health and welfare measures [...] That is why the labor-hater and labor-baiter is virtuallyalways a twin-headed creature spewing anti-Negro epithets from one mouth and anti-labor propaganda from the other mouth." – 
 Dr. Martin Luther King  ,"If the Negro Wins, Labor Wins", December 11, 1961
[edit] Development of labour movements within nationstates
Historicallylabour markets have often been constrained by national borders that have restricted movement of workers. Labour laws are also primarily determined by individualnations or states within those nations. While there have been some efforts to adopt a setof international labour standards through the International Labour Organization (ILO), international sanctions for failing to meet such standards are very limited. In manycountries labour movements have developed independently and reflect those national boundaries.
[edit] Development of an international labourmovement

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