First we kept the CRT parallel to the current carryingconductor like in Fig. 1(a) and noted that the electron beamgoes away from the conductor. Next we reversed thedirection of the CRT and found that the beam comes close tothe conductor. From these observations immediately oneconcludes that there cannot be an electric field since it is nota temperament of an electric field. This conclusion could bea big mistake in understanding the field and can keep usaway from the reality. We must be firm on our determination.We decided to go for next. Next we kept the CRT perpendicular to the conductor like in Fig. 1(c) and foundthat the beam is deflected along the direction of the current.From this we concluded that the force on the electrons in the beam can be parallel to the conductor. To confirm the exactdirection of the force, we shifted the CRT in verticaldirection like in Fig. 1(d) and noticed the deflection. Thedeflection was still parallel to the conductor but decreased. Itimplied that the force on the beam was again parallel to thewire. Our determination was that the force should be anelectric force since the involved particles were electric innature. Thus we got a parallel electric field around theconductor pointing in opposite direction of the current anddecreasing away as shown in figure 2(a). The divergence of the field was zero whereas curl was non-zero. This wasunexpected. Now there was a big question to give answer tothe deflections in Fig. 1(a) and in Fig. 1(b). If we couldsucceed then the obtained field structure might be acceptedotherwise no alternatives could be left other than to acceptthe magnetic field. In Fig. 1(a) the electrons must beaccelerated while acceleration, they are going away from theconductor and in Fig. 1(b) the electrons are decelerated andwhile deceleration they are coming close to the conductor.Immediately we concluded that this can happen only if theforce on these electrons is asymmetric. Essentially the fieldwas decreasing way from the conductor and could result intoasymmetric force if the electron has substantial size. Becauseof this ambiguity we could not
Figure 2. (a) Electric field produced by a long current carrying conductor,(b) an electron in the field of the conductor.
justify this proposition. No doubt, the force was electric andasymmetric but we were not getting any clue. After conscious brooding, we concluded that the force can beasymmetric if and only if it exerts in terms of a field-fieldinteraction, i.e., the electric field of the conductor appliesforce on the electric field of the electron and vice versa.Using this concept we could successfully explain thedeflections in Fig. 1 as reported below.To explain the deflection in Fig. 1(a), we divide theelectron’s field, placed in the conductor’s field, into two parts through its centre, one is up to the conductor as field
and the other is away from the conductor as field
.Obviously, the conductor’s electric field applies a greater force on field
than on field
. It results to move the field
faster than that the field
. Therefore, the electron should goaway from the conductor while accelerating. In case of Fig.1(b), the electrons are decelerated by the conductor’s field.While decelerating, field
of the electron must be moredecelerated than that the field
. It results into electron tocome closer to the conductor. Thus, the usual force equation,
, inferring the charge-field interaction, cannot work.Another equation for the force inferring the field-fieldinteraction needs to be developed.The deflection of an electron beam, shown in Fig. 3, is aninteresting case on the view of electric field. While theelectron is going away from the conductor in a perpendicular direction, the field
of the electron is pushed faster alongthe direction of the current than the field
. This tends tomove the electron along the curved path. Thus the electronmoves in opposite direction of the force which is unexpectedin the electric field.One question arises from the above proposition is thatwhy the current carrying conductor should produce a parallelelectric field? This may be because of maintaining thesurrounding space electrically neutral. We must notice on amechanism that it works always to maintain the spaceelectrical neutral. The space surrounding the conductor wasneutral before the current. The flow of current should havedisturbed it. If one brings another conductor close to the first,of same length carrying same amount of current in oppositedirection, then the net electric field should be reduced. If there is no current in the second conductor then themechanism should try to produce a current in it in oppositedirection so that the disturbed space will become againelectrically neutral. For that the parallel electric field isessential which is produced. The Coulomb force may also begenerated through this mechanism. Same types of
Figure 3. Deflection of an electron beam in the field of a direct currentcarrying conductor.
2011 International Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics(ICAPM 2011)