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Chapter 7 Notes

Chapter 7 Notes

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Published by: Trevor on Oct 08, 2008
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09/05/2012

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Chapter 7 – Data Link LayerPrepares network data for the physical network
Accessing the Media
Performs 2 basic services
Allows the upper layers to access the media using techniques such asframing
Controls how data is placed onto the media and is received from themedia using techniques such as media access control and error detection
 Terms:
Frame – Data Link Layer PDU
Node – Layer 2 notion for network devices connected to a commonmedium (a device on anetwork)
Media/Medium (physical) – physical means for the transfer of informationbetween 2 nodes
Network (physical) – 2 or more nodes connected to a common medium
Data link layer protocols govern how to format a frame for use on differentmedia
Different protocols may be in use for different media
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Ethernet
High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
Frame Relay
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
At each hop along the path
An intermediary device accepts frames from one medium
Decapsulates the frame and forwards the packets in a new frame
Headers of each frame are formatted for the specific medium that it willcross
Media access control method – technique used for getting frame on and off media
Media access control methods described by DLL protocols define theprocesses by which network devices can access the network media andtransmit frames in diverse network environments
Creating a Frame
DLL protocols require control info to enable the protocols to function. Infomay tell:
Which nodes are in communication with each other
When communication between individual nodes begins and when itends
Which errors occurred while the nodes communicated
Which nodes will communicate next
DLL frame includes:
Data – packet from the network layer
Header – contains control information (addressing) & is located atbeginning of PDU
 Trailer – contains control info added to the end of the PDU
When data travels on media, converted into bits. Field types include:
 
Start and stop indicator fields – beginning & end limits of the frame
Naming or addressing fields
 Type field – type of PDU contained in frame
Quality – control fields
Data field – frame payload (Network layer packet)
DLL links the software and hardware layers
Physical devices devoted to the DLL have both hardware and softwarecomponents
Data link sublayers
Upper sublayer defines software processes that provide services to theNetwork layer protocols
Lower defines the media access processes performed by the hardware
2 Common LAN sublayers
Logical Link Control (LLC)
Places info in the frame that identifies which Network layer protocolis being used for the frame
Allows layer 3 protocols to utilize same network interface & media
Media Access Control (MAC)
Provides DLL addressing & delimiting of data according to physicalsignaling requirements of medium and type of DLL protocol in use
Organizations define open standards & protocols that apply to DLL
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
HDLC (High Level Data Link Control)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
802.2 (LLC)
802.3 (Ethernet)
802.5 (Token Ring)
802.11 (Wireless)
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Q.922 (Frame Relay Standard)
Q.921 (ISDN Data Link Standard)
HDLC (High Level Data Link Control)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
3T9.5
ADCCP (Advanced Data Communications Control Protocol)
DLL Processes occur in both software and hardware
Media Access Control Techniques
Media Access Control – regulating the placement of data frames onto themedia
Methods
No control at all = collisions
Cause corrupted frames that must be resent
Methods that enforce a high degree of control prevent collisions
Process has high overhead
 That enforce a low degree of control have low overhead
More frequent collisions
 
Method of MAC used depends on:
Media sharing – if & how nodes share the media
 Topology – how connection between nodes appears to DLL
 Two basic media access control methods:
Controlled – each node has own time to use the medium (token ring, FDDI)
Network devices take turns
Scheduled access /
deterministic
No collisions
Can be insufficient because a device has to wait its turn before usingmedium
Contention-based – all nodes compete for use of medium (Ethernet,Wireless)
Devices try to access medium whenever it has data to send
Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
Prevent chaos
First detect if media is carrying a signal
CSMA/Collision Detection
Ethernet networks
Monitors media for presence of a data signal
If media is free, device transmits data
CSMA/ Collision Avoidance
Wireless networks
Examines media for presence of data signal
If media is free, notification of intent to use is sent, device sendsdata
Media Access Control for Non-shared media
Half Duplex
Communication means that devices can both transmit & receive onmedia, but not simultaneously
Full Duplex
Botch devices can transmit & receive on the media at the same time
 Topology – arrangement or relationship of network devices andinterconnections between them
Physical topology – arrangement of the nodes and the physicalconnections between them
Logical topology – the way a network transfers frames from one node tothe next
 The physical topology of a network will most likely not be the same as thelogical topology
Media access method used by DL protocol is determined by logical point-to-point topology
Logical & Physical typically used in networks are:
Point-to-Point
Connects 2 nodes directly together
If data can only flow in 1 direction at a time, it is operating at half-duplex link
If data can flow across the link from each node simultaneously; full-duplex link

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