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Disease Control in the Home Vegetable Garden Extremlym

Disease Control in the Home Vegetable Garden Extremlym

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Published by: Extremlym Sync on Sep 10, 2011
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01/15/2013

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 Powdery MildewCanker Wilt Stem Blight  Root Rot  Root Knot Crown Galls Fruit  Rot  Leaf Spots Leaf  Blight 
PB1215
Agricultural Extension Service
The University of Tennessee
DiseaseControltheHomeVegetableGardenin
 
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Table of Contents
PageCultural Methods of Vegetable Disease Control_________________________________3Garden Site Selection_____________________________________________________3Soil Tillage_____________________________________________________________3Crop Rotation___________________________________________________________3Sanitation______________________________________________________________3Disease-free Seed and Transplants___________________________________________4Seed Treatments_________________________________________________________4Planting Dates__________________________________________________________4Mulches_______________________________________________________________4Staking or Trellising_____________________________________________________4Watering_______________________________________________________________5Use of Resistant Varieties_________________________________________________5Proper Plant Spacing_____________________________________________________5Avoid Use of Tobacco Products______________________________________________5Proper Fertilization______________________________________________________5Insects as Related to Vegetable Disease Control_________________________________5Nematode Control________________________________________________________5Pesticides and Vegetable Disease Control______________________________________6Fungicides_____________________________________________________________6Pesticide Mixing and Spraying______________________________________________6Outline For Control of Vegetable Diseases_____________________________________7Common Names And Trade Names of Chemicals for Controlling Disease of Vegetables____17Pesticide Safety________________________________________________________18
Foreword
Control of vegetable pests (diseases, insects, weeds) involves a total production program that in-cludes both chemical and non-chemical means of pest control. The establishment of a healthy, vigor-ous crop is central to a successful pest control program. Production practices such as maintainingproper soil pH and fertility are helpful in reducing potential losses from all types of pests.This publication deals mainly with chemical and biological pest control, because these recommen-dations change more often than do cultural practices. Cultural practices of pest control are extremelyimportant and are addressed throughout the publication.
 
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Disease Controlin the HomeVegetable Garden
Cultural Methodsof Vegetable Disease Control
Most vegetables are susceptible to one ormore diseases. You can, therefore, anticipatedisease problems sooner or later in your veg-etable garden. By following good cultural prac-tices and taking preventive measures, yourchances of garden failure due to disease prob-lems can be reduced.
Garden site selection
is important to pro-duce high yields of healthy vegetables. Trying togrow vegetables on a poor site is one of themain causes of garden failure. Although fewpeople will have ideal garden sites, they shouldselect the best site available.Garden sites should not be within thedripline of large trees. Avoid planting near blackwalnut trees, since they produce a root sub-stance that is toxic to certain vegetables, espe-cially tomatoes. The garden site should beslightly sloped to provide good water and airdrainage through the soil.Excess soil moisture can damage vegetableroots, as well as promote root diseases caused bycertain fungi. Air movement through the gardenis also important to help dry the foliage, thusreducing the chances of fungal and bacterialinfections. Garden sites with good air drainageare less likely to be damaged by late frosts.Most garden vegetables require full sunlight formaximum production. Sunlight also hastensdrying of foliage.
Soil tillage
should be done early enough,prior to planting, to allow decomposition of raworganic matter such as manure or green plantmaterial. This usually requires about six weeksunder warm temperatures and longer at lowtemperatures. Organic material that has notdecomposed can be a source of disease organismsand can also promote development of certaindiseases such as root and stem rots. Applyingnitrogen fertilizer before plowing or tilling greenplant material into the soil will hasten its de-composition.
Crop rotation
will help prevent the build upof disease-causing organisms in the soil. Somedisease-causing organisms affect one vegetableor group of vegetables, but may not affect an-other. Several vegetables of the same family,such as squash, cucumbers and cantaloupes, maybe affected by the same disease. Therefore, it isnot a good practice to grow plants of the samefamily in rotation. Table 1 gives crop groupingsfor rotation to control soil-borne diseases. Atleast a three-year rotation is suggested forvegetable crops.
Sanitation
is very important in controllingvegetable diseases. Many disease-causing organ-isms survive the winter in plant debris, cullfruit or plant stubble left in the garden. Anypractice that will eliminate these overwinteringsites for fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodeswill reduce the occurrence of disease problemsthe following year.Removal or plowing-under of crop stubbleand trash helps destroy overwintering popula-tions of disease organisms. Some disease-causingorganisms are able to survive the off season oncontaminated equipment or containers. Equip-ment that has been used in disease-infested
 Elizabeth A. Long, Associate Extension Specialist  Entomology and Plant Pathology 

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