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Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA)

Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA)

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Published by Maria Khan

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Published by: Maria Khan on Sep 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/11/2011

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1
 Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA)
Produced during fermentation
3 major VFAs
 AcetateCHCOOH
PropionateCH
3
CH
2
COOH
ButyrateCH
3
CH
2
CH
2
COOH
 Acetate
Metabolized by rumen epithelium toketones(acetone, acetoacetate,
β
-hydroxybutyrate)
Not utilized by liver
 Acetate utilization
Important as a precursor to de novofatty acid synthesis
 Adipose
Lactating mammary gland
Oxidized via TCA 
 Activated to acetyl CoA 
Used by skeletal muscle, kidneys, andheart for energy
 Acetate utilization
Dependent upon
Energy balance
GeneratesCOandHOi.e.ATPwheninlow 
 
energy balance
Used for fatty acid synthesis when animal is inhigh energy balance
 Arterial concentration
Tissue uptake is directly related to rate of rumen fermentation [blood concentration]
Propionate
Utilized by rumen epithelium
Important as a precursor for
Propionate metabolism
GlucoseOAA TCA CyclePropionatePropionyl CoA Methylmalonyl CoA uccny o
Coenzyme B 
12 
Biotin, Mg 
++ 
 ATP AMP + 2 Pi ATP ADP + PiCoA 
 
2
Butyrate
Metabolized by rumen epithelium toketonebodies (acetoacetate,
β
-hydroxybutyrate)
Later metabolized in liver
Hepatic metabolism of VFA 
RumenPortalvein
 Acetate5070
Liver
 Acetate
Peripheralblood
PropionateButyrateGlucose3-hydroxybutyrate2010101
3-OHbutyrateGlucoseCO
2
4
Lipogenesis
Non-ruminants
from glucose
from acetate and butyrate
Glycerol
from glucose and glycerol
Fatty acid synthesis
Fatty acids are built 2 carbons at a time
Limit is 16 carbons
 
Acetyl CoA carboxylase
Fatty acid synthase
Formation of malonyl CoA 
CO
2
acetyl CoA malonyl CoA  ATP ADP + Piacetyl CoA carboxylaseon

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