The cultivated area in Punjab province is 12.43 million ha of the total reported area of 17.5 million hectares.Thearea under fodder production in the province is approximately 14 % of the cultivated area (Anonymous 2004).This figure is static because of the competition for the grain production to feed the growing population of thecountry. In fact, some workers have reported that the area for fodder production is decreasing because of theincrease in the area under grain and cash crops.Unless the fodder is taken as an essential crop and given a prime position in the cropping system, it can't boostthe productivity of the animals. The Government is spending more than Rs. 769 million on the import of milk and milk products every year (Economic Survey 2003-04). Increasing the domestic production not only willincrease per capita availability of milk but it will direct this huge amount of money to other goods and services.The meat prices are also soaring because of the extended prices of the feeds and feeding. By diverting dueattention to the aspects of fodder situation, making the pastures green can improve the status of fodder andforage situation in the province.About 80-90 % of the nutrients requirements of livestock are met from the fodder crops in the irrigated areas.During Rabi (winter fodders) fodders available from October through April include Berseem (
), Barley (
), Lucerne or Alfalfa (
, Mustard/Rape (
.), Oats (
), Raya (
) and Sugar cane (
Saccharum officinarum L.
) as awhole plant or tops.Kharif fodders(summer fodders) are grown from May through September. These include Cowpea (
), Dwarf elephant grass, Guar (
), Jantar (Dhaincha), Maize (
), Millet (
), Moth (
), Mung (
), Napier grass, Sorghum (
), Sudex (Sadabahar), Sugar beet tops (
) and Swank (
). Table 2 indicates the area, production and yield of some major fodder crops reportedin the previous year.
The area, production and yield of various fodderscrops in Punjab during the year 2002-2003
Fodder CropsArea,000 haProduction, 000tonsYield/ha,kgs
Maize420883 2105Bajra (Millet)333181 544Jowar (Sorghum)235132 563Barley 4038 962
Concentrates are high in energy and/or protein, low in fiber, and highly digestible. They are the expensive partof the animal feed and are used mostly in small quantities as supplements. These feeds include cereals, oil seedsand meals, cereals brans and polishings, molasses and sugar beet pulp. According to Habib and Siddiqui(1994), two local types of concentrates are common.Energy-rich (carbonaceous) including cereal grains (wheat, maize, barley, oats, sorghum, rice), wheat bran, rice polishing, molasses (sugar cane and sugar beet molasses), sugar beet pulp.
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