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C2005 Ukur Kejuruteraan 2

C2005 Ukur Kejuruteraan 2

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Published by: azmir on Sep 11, 2011
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Estimation of area and volume is basic to most engineering schemes such asroute alignment, reservoirs, construction of tunnels, etc. The excavation andhauling of material on such schemes is the most significant and costly aspect ofthe work, on which profit or loss may depend. Area may be required inconnection with the purchase or sale of land, with the division of land or with thegrading of land. Earthwork volumes must be estimated :
to enable route alignment to be located at such lines and levels that cutand fill are balanced as far as practical.
to enable contract estimates of time and cost to be made for proposedwork.
to form the basis of payment for work carried out.It is frequently necessary as part of engineering surveying projects to determinethe area enclosed by the boundaries of a site or the volume of earthworkrequired to be moved. Many of the figures involve accepted mensurationformulae (see 1.6 ) but it is more common to meet irregular shapes and theserequire special attention.
The basic unit of area in SI units is the square metre (m²) but for large areas thehectare is a derived unit.
1 hectare (ha) = 10 000 m² = 2.471 05 acres
2.2.1 Conversion Of Plannimetric Area Into Actual Area
Let the scale of the plan be 1 in H (or as representative fraction1/H). Then 1 mm is equivalent to H mm and 1 mm² is equivalent toH² mm² is equivalent to H mm², i.e.x 10
Areas of ground may be obtained from the plotted plan but results are only asaccurate as it is possible to scale off the drawings. Accuracy is greatly increasedby using the measurements taken in the field. In most surveys the area isdivisible into two parts :a)
The rectilinear 
areas enclosed by the survey linesb)
The irregular areas 
of the strips between these lines and theboundaryIn order to calculate the area of the whole, each of these areas must beevaluated separately because each is defined by a different form of geometricalfigure.
2.3.1 Rectilinear Areas
The method of evaluating the rectilinear area enclosed by surveylines depends on the method of survey.a) If chain surveying is used, the areas of the triangles forming the surveynetwork are calculated from the field dimensions from the formula :
 Area =
√ (s(s – 
a) (s
b) (s
c))Where a, b and c = the lengths of the triangles sides ands = (a + b + c) / 2
b) If traversing is used and the survey stations are coordinated, the computedcoordinated are used in the area calculation.Whichever calculation method is used, checks must be applied to provethe area calculations. In a chain survey network the work must bearranged so that two different sets of the triangles forming the rectilinearfigure are used in evaluating the total area, which is thus twice calculated.These two results will not normally agree precisely because the networkwill not be geometrically perfect. Owing to observational errors, the tworesults are meaned to produce the final rectilinear area. When areas arecalculated from coordinates, the calculation must be repeated another wayto prove the result.
2.3.2 Irregular Areas
Unless boundaries are straight and the corner points coordinated thereare usually irregular strips of ground between the survey lines and theproperty boundaries. The area of the irregular strips are either positive ornegative to the rectilinear area and since they are divided up by offsetsbetween which the boundary is supposed to run straight, they arecomputed as a series of trapezoids. The mean of each pair of offsets istaken and multiplied by the chainage between them. Where the offsets are
taken at regular intervals, the trapezoidal rule or Simpson’s rule for areas
is used, (see section 2.6).
a. The field work should be arranged to overcome difficulties with corners. This is usually achieved by extending the survey line to the boundary, allowing for the triangular shape which may occur.b. In order to check the irregular area the calculations should be repeated by another person, or a check against gross error may be made taking out a planimeter area of the plot.
The figure shows the rectilinear area ABCD, which is calculated first. Theirregular strips between thechain lines and theboundary must beseparately evaluated andeither added or subtractedas necessary from themain rectilinear areacalculation result. Thefollowing data wereobtained from the chainsurvey of the site :AB - 63.0 m

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