AREA AND VOLUME
Estimation of area and volume is basic to most engineering schemes such asroute alignment, reservoirs, construction of tunnels, etc. The excavation andhauling of material on such schemes is the most significant and costly aspect ofthe work, on which profit or loss may depend. Area may be required inconnection with the purchase or sale of land, with the division of land or with thegrading of land. Earthwork volumes must be estimated :
to enable route alignment to be located at such lines and levels that cutand fill are balanced as far as practical.
to enable contract estimates of time and cost to be made for proposedwork.
to form the basis of payment for work carried out.It is frequently necessary as part of engineering surveying projects to determinethe area enclosed by the boundaries of a site or the volume of earthworkrequired to be moved. Many of the figures involve accepted mensurationformulae (see 1.6 ) but it is more common to meet irregular shapes and theserequire special attention.
2.2 PLAN AREAS
The basic unit of area in SI units is the square metre (m²) but for large areas thehectare is a derived unit.
1 hectare (ha) = 10 000 m² = 2.471 05 acres
2.2.1 Conversion Of Plannimetric Area Into Actual Area
Let the scale of the plan be 1 in H (or as representative fraction1/H). Then 1 mm is equivalent to H mm and 1 mm² is equivalent toH² mm² is equivalent to H mm², i.e.H² x 10