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Table Of Contents

1.3 The Earth and the seasons
1.4 Full moon and New moon
1.5 The structure of the Earth
1.6 Atmosphere
1.8 Water
1.9 Soil
1.10Conditions essential for life
2.1Need of standard units
2.2 S I Units
2.3 Conventions to be followed in writing the units in SI system
2.4Multiples and submultiples of units
2.5 Measurement of length
2.8 Measurement of mass
2.9.1 Sundial
2.9.2 Sand Clock
2.9.3 Water Clock
2.9.4 Pendulum clock
2.9.5 Simple pendulum
3.1 Matter
3.2.1 The shape and volume of solids
3.2.2 The shape and volume of liquids
3.2.3 The shape and volume of gases
3.3.1 Rigidity and Flexibility of matter
3.3.2 Fluidity of matter
3.3.3 Solubility of matter
3.3.4 Change in volume of matter due to pressure
3.3.5 Change of State of matter
3.4 Diffusibility of Matter
3.5 Attraction towards a magnet
3.6 Conductors of heat
3.7 Conductors of electricity
3.8 Transparency
4.3.2 Winnowing
4.3.3 Sieving
4.3.4 Sedimentation and Decantation
4.3.5 Magnetic separation
4.3.6 Filtration
4.3.7 Evaporation
4.3.8 Crystallisation
4.3.9 Sublimation
5.1Slow and fast changes
5.2 Reversible and irreversible changes
5.3 Periodic and non-periodic changes
5.4 Desirable and undesirable changes
5.5 Physical and chemical changes
5.6.1 Dissolution
5.6.2 Evaporation
5.6.3 Boiling
5.6.4 Condensation
5.6.5 Freezing
5.6.6 Melting
5.6.7 Sublimation
5.6.8 Rusting of iron
5.6.9 Burning of fuel
5.6.10 Curdling of Milk
5.6.11 Fermentation
5.7.1 Exothermic changes
5.7.2 Endothermic changes
6.1 Rest and Motion
6.2Types of motion
6.3.1 Distance and Displacement
6.3.2 Speed
6.3.3 Velocity
6.3.4 Uniform and non uniform motion
6.4.1 Effects of force
6.4.2 Unit of force
6.4.3 Types of forces
6.5.1 Pressure of liquids
6.5.2 Pressure of gases
6.5.3 Measuring pressure
6.5.4 Liquid pressure detector
6.5.5 Bourdon gauge
6.5.6 Barometer
7.1 Work
7.2Work and machine
7.3.1 The lever
7.3.2. The inclined plane
7.3.3. The screw
7.3.4 The wedge
7.3.5 The wheel and axle
7.3.6 Gears
7.3.7 The Pulley
7.4.1 Energy
7.4.2 Different forms of energy
7.4.3 Energy conversions
7.4.4. Technological applications
8.1.1 Importance of nutrients
8.1.2 Autotrophic nutrition
8.1.3 Heterotrophic nutrition
8.1.4 Basic components of food
8.2.1 Limited and unlimited growth
8.2.2 Factors affecting the growth
8.2.3 Different sizes of animals
8.3.1 Types of metabolism
8.3.2 Photosynthesis
8.3.3 Energy content of food
8.3.4 Bio-chemical nature of life activities
8.4.1 Types of stimuli
8.4.2 Responses of organisms in relation to the stimuli
8.4.3 Sense organs
8.5.1 Reasons for Locomotion
8.5.2 Locomotion of unicellular organisms
8.5.3 Locomotion in higher animals
8.6.1 Significance of reproduction
8.6.2 Types of reproduction in plants
8.6.3 Reproduction in animals
8.6.4. Gestation period of animals
8.6.5 Sexual dimorphism in animals
9.1.1 Significance of various organisms
9.1.2 Viruses - introduction
9.1.3 Discovery of viruses
9.1.4 Structure of a virus
9.1.5 Virus - size and shape
9.1.6 Classification of viruses
9.1.7 Living and non-living characteristics of virus
9.1.8 Diseases caused by viruses
9.2.1 Monera eg. Bacteria
9.2.2 Discovery of Bacteria
9.2.3. Structure of Bacteria
9.2.4 Classification of bacteria
9.2.5 Beneficial bacteria
9.2.6 Harmful Bacteria
9.3.1. Micro-algae
9.3.2 Pyrrophyta - Dianoflagellates
9.4 Fungi Ascomycetes
9.5.1. Bio-diversity among plants
9.5.2 Classification of plants
9.5.3. Macro-algae
9.5.4. Non-flowering plants
9.5.5. Vascular cryptogams
9.5.6. Gymnosperms
9.5.7 Angiosperms
9.6.1 Porifera
9.6.2 Phylum : Coelenterata
9.6.3 Phylum : Platyhelminthes
9.6.4 Phylum : Aschelminthes
9.6.5 Phylum : Annelida
9.6.6 Phylum : Arthropoda
9.6.7 Phylum : Mollusca
9.6.8 Phylum : Echinodermata
9.6.9 Phylum : Chordata
9.7 Anthropology
10.1.1 Two types of root systems
10.1.2 Tap root system
10.1.3 Fibrous root system
10.1.4 Functions of root
10.1.5 Root modifications
10.2.1 Parts of the shoot system
10.2.2 Characteristics of shoot system
10.2.3 Modifications of stem
10.2.4 Parts of a flower and its functions
10.3.1 Internal structure of a leaf
10.3.2 Role of stomata
10.3.3 Transpiration
10.3.4 Photosynthesis
10.3.5 Respiration
10.4.1 Digestive system of man
10.4.2 Process of digestion
10.4.3 The changes that take place on food in the digestive system
10.4.4 The end products of digestion
10.5 Circulatory system of man
10.6.1 Waste products
10.6.2 Excretory organs
11.1.1 Abiotic factors
11.1.2 Biotic factors
11.1.3 Types of ecosystem
11.2.1 Hydrophytes
11.2.2 Mesophytes (plants of fertile lands)
11.2.3 Xerophytes
11.2.4 Aquatic animals
11.2.5 Terrestrial animals
11.3.1 Purification of air during photosynthesis
11.3.2 Source of rainfall
11.3.3 ‘Rain water harvesting’ in individual home
11.3.4 Conservation of soil fertility
11.3.5 Role of animals in Environment
11.3.6 Recycling by earthworm
11.4 Role of man in environment
12.1.1 Rubber : Uses of rubber
12.1.2 Ornamental plants
12.1.3 Pollination by insects
12.1.4 Dispersal of seeds
12.1.5 Cattle rearing, Chicken rearing and Aquaculture
12.1.6 Prevention of cruelty to Animals
12.2.1 Importance and uses of medicinal plants
12.2.2 Ginger
12.2.3 Babul tree - Karuvela Maram
12.2.4 Garlic
12.2.5 Madar
12.2.6 Nithiya Kalyani
12.3.1 Root tubers
12.3.2 Stem tubers
12.3.3 Greens – leafy vegetables
12.3.4 Food from algae and fungi
12.3.5 Importance of vegetarian diet
12.4.1 Importance of fibres
12.4.2 Stem fibers
12.4.3 Leaf fibres
12.4.4 Surface fibres
12.5.1 Plant fats
12.5.2 Easily evaporating oils
12.5.3 Slowly evaporating oils
12.5.4 Non-drying oils
12.5.5 Oil extraction
12.6.1 Dog and Cat
12.6.2 Rabbits and love birds
12.6.3 Aquarium
13.1 Health - General features
13.2 Health related values
13.4 Personal hygiene
13.5.1 Environmental factors affecting health
13.5.2 Control of contamination of food and water
13.5.3 Care for the environment and Control of pollution
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Environmental Studies Science in English2

Environmental Studies Science in English2

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Published by Grt Dinesh

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Published by: Grt Dinesh on Sep 11, 2011
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