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APEH, Chapter Three, Sections 11-14

APEH, Chapter Three, Sections 11-14

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1guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryEconomic Renewal and Wars of Religion, Review for Sections 11-14For your convenience, the terms have been rearranged alphabetically.AbyssiniaAbyssiniaAbyssiniaAbyssiniaModern-day EthiopiaSupposed location of Prester JohnThe oldest mosques, Jewish sects, and Christian churches have been found in this area.Antwerp/Rotterdam/Amsterdam/CalaisAntwerp/Rotterdam/Amsterdam/CalaisAntwerp/Rotterdam/Amsterdam/CalaisAntwerp/Rotterdam/Amsterdam/CalaisOpen to the Atlantic, important commercial centers.Amsterdam became commercial and financial center of northern Europe; retained commercialsupremacy for a century financial supremacy for two centuries.Antwerp became useless after war because Scheldt was closed off.Battle of LepantoBattle of LepantoBattle of LepantoBattle of LepantoThe battle against the Turks the Spanish won – took place off the coast of Greece at Lepanto,Spanish believed they were carrying on the crusades of the Middle Ages.BourgeoisieBourgeoisieBourgeoisieBourgeoisieA new class created by mercantilism – today better known as the middle class.
Bourgeois 
wasa French word meaning a person living in a charted town or borough.In this time period, the term referred to the class that drew its income from land or the laboringpoor who depended on wages or charity.This category was very broad. At the top were urban elites who governed towns, who mightdraw incomes from property, commerce, and could intermarry with nobles. Bourgeoisie whogoverned strong towns could form virtual aristocracies in themselves.The families of merchants, bankers, shipowners, judges, tax officials, and other lower-levelemployees of government were also considered middle class.Cabral, PedroCabral, PedroCabral, PedroCabral, PedroIn 1500, Pedro Cabral reached to coast of Brazil, which he claimed for Portugal.ColumbusColumbusColumbusColumbus, Christopher, Christopher, Christopher, ChristopherUndertook the journey across the Atlantic Ocean to find the way to Asia from the west.Presumed the land he came upon was an outlying part of the Indies.Sailed with the backing of Queen Isabella of Castile. Spanish monarchy extremely interested inbeating Portuguese to the East, gave Columbus 17 ships for his second voyage.He can be considered the “Janus” of explorers – even though he opened up a new world for theEuropeans, he destroyed several American cultures that had existed prior to 1492.
 
2guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryEconomic Renewal and Wars of Religion, Review for Sections 11-14Columbus captured the native women and children, then threatened to kill them unless themen brought him gold.Columbus never realized he had not found Asia after all.Calvinist/Huguenots/LutheransCalvinist/Huguenots/LutheransCalvinist/Huguenots/LutheransCalvinist/Huguenots/LutheransProtestant offshoots – see previous guide for details.Formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.CaravelsCaravelsCaravelsCaravelsDeveloped by Prince Henry the Navigator. These new ships had larger cargo hulls and could beequipped with cannons. Additionally, it was possible to move the sails – fleets no longer hadto waste weeks in port waiting for winds to blow in the right direction.Caribes/ArawaksCaribes/ArawaksCaribes/ArawaksCaribes/ArawaksThese natives used to live on the islands in the Caribbean – however, there are no longer anypure-blooded Caribes or Arawaks because their population was decimated by Columbus’ arrival.Charles VCharles VCharles VCharles VKing of the Holy Roman Empire, father of Philip II of Spain. He borrowed money from theFuggers in order to obtain his position as Holy Roman Empire.After 35 years of ruling, he retired to monastery in 1556, leaving most of his lands to Philip II.Cortes, HernandoCortes, HernandoCortes, HernandoCortes, HernandoWith the help of technology, his small group of 200 Spaniards was able to conquer millions of Aztecs in Mexico. The Spanish came with horses, cannons, muskets, and war dogs. They alsounintentionally spread illnesses throughout the native population.Once the Spaniards reached the shores, they had no choice but to continue on their mission, ascommanded by the monarchy. The Aztec’s religion coincidentally placed the return of theirgod, Quetzalcoatl, at the same time that Cortes’ ships arrived. The Spanish were initiallyaccepted as gods.Cottage IndustryCottage IndustryCottage IndustryCottage IndustryDealers began to break away from the restrictive practices of the towns and guilds by “puttingout” work to people in the country. They provided the raw materials and equipment, whilepaying the workers for their labor.Women would spin wool into thread, while men wove the thread into cloth. This cloth couldbe manufactured cheaply and sold for a greater profit.Council of Nobles/Blood/TroublesCouncil of Nobles/Blood/TroublesCouncil of Nobles/Blood/TroublesCouncil of Nobles/Blood/Troubles
 
3guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryEconomic Renewal and Wars of Religion, Review for Sections 11-14The Council of Nobles was sent to the Spanish Netherlands by Philip II to carry out theReconquista. They executed thousands of people, seizing Protestant-owned lands andimposing new taxes upon the people of the Netherlands.De la CouncilDe la CouncilDe la CouncilDe la CouncilBartholomew de las Casas was a Spaniard living in Cuba. He previously owned a mahoganyplantation with numerous slaves. One day, however, he had a paradigm shift and decided thatenslaving Native Americans was wrong.He began to fight a tireless crusade based on the idea that Indians of the New World had souls,which meant they could not be enslaved.He went before the Council of the Indies, arguing that the Indians were Christian, Spanishsubjects. The council later agreed, saying that Indians who converted to Catholicism could notbe enslaved.When Bartholomew built a town and populated them with Indians who lived a Spanishlifestyle, it was later attacked.Explorers were instructed to read the
Requimento 
out to Indians telling them that if theyconverted, they could not be harmed. However, there were loopholes, such as reading it whenthey were miles away, or reading it in Spanish.De Leon/PizDe Leon/PizDe Leon/PizDe Leon/PizaaaarrrrrorororoIn 1513, Ponce De Leon led an expedition that discovered Florida.Pizarro conquered the Incas in Peru, capturing their ruler (the Inca), and demanding ransom of gold and silver in return.Gold and silver had only religious value to the Incas, since gold symbolized the Sun God, whilesilver symbolized the Moon Goddess.The riches in silver found in the Potosi silver mines funded European projects of the king of Spain for years to come. After 1550, 500,000 pounds of silver and 10,000 pounds of goldflowed annually from America to Spain.Destruction of the IndiesDestruction of the IndiesDestruction of the IndiesDestruction of the IndiesWritten by Bartholomew de las Casas, outlining the plight of the Native Americans beingenslaved by conquistadores.Dias,Dias,Dias,Dias, BartholomewBartholomewBartholomewBartholomewRounded the tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. However, he encountered a hurricane afterdoing so and was forced to return to Europe rather than continue sailing to India.His fleet sailed close to the coast of Africa so as not to go astray. Every night, they anchoredand Dias would make notes in his logbook – these would become invaluable to later explorersfollowing his route.

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