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Chapter 7- Cellular Respiration (Notes)

Chapter 7- Cellular Respiration (Notes)

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CHAPTER 7– CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Section 1 – Glycolysis And Fermentation
 Harvesting Chemical EnergyCellular Respiration – a series of redox reactions in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds.Glycolysis – a biochemical pathway that begins cellular respiration and yields asmall amount of ATP. The other products of glycolysis can follow one of two pathways:1.Anaerobic Pathway – yields additional ATP from oxygen lacking products.If oxygen is present, products enter aerobic respiration . Aerobicrespiration produces a much larger amount of ATP than glycolysis aloneGlycolysisGlycolysis is a pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidizedto produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acidReactions of glycolysis take place in the cytosol and are catalyzed by enzymes.Step 1 (Energy Investment): Two phosphate groups are attached to glucose,forming a new six-carbon compound. The phosphate groups are supplied by twomolecules of ATP,which are converted into molecules of ADP in the process.Step 2 (Cleavage of Sugar): The six-carbon compound formed in Step 1 is splitinto two three-carbon molecules of PGAL.Step 3: The two PGAL molecules are oxidized, and each receives a free-floating phosphate group. This produces two molecules of a new three-carbon compound.Two molecules of NAD + are reduced to NADH after accepting the electronsfrom the oxidation reaction.Step 4 (Energy Generation): The phosphate groups added in Steps 1 and 3 areremoved from the three-carbon compounds.This produces two molecules of  pyruvic acid. Each of the four phosphate groups combine with ADP to make four molecule sof ATP.Because 2 ATP molecules are required to transport NADH intothe mitochondria,the net product of glycolysis is 2 ATP.3.Fermentation – the combination of glycolysis with additional pathways to convert pyruvic acid into other compounds in the lack of oxygen.
 
These additional pathways do not produce ATP. Instead, they regenerate NAD +which can be used to power glycolysis.wLactic Acid Fermentation – the process by which an enzyme converts pyruvicacid into another three-carbon compound,called lactic acid. NADH is oxidized back to NAD + . It occurs in muscle cells bWhen oxygen is once again available, the liver can convert lactic acid back into pyruvate. bAlcoholic Fermentation – the process by which cells convert pyruvic acid intoethyl alcohol. Yeast uses this pathway; and hence they form the basis for the wineand beer industryaOrganisms can only use alcoholic fermentation at concentration of alcoholat or below 14%. Otherwise,the organism could die.aEnergy YieldEKilocalorie (kcal) – a value used to obtain the efficiency of anaerobic pathways.The complete oxidation of a standard amount of glucose released 686 kcal.
Section 2 – Aerobic RespirationS
Overview Of Aerobic RespirationOMitochondrial Matrix – a space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.The pyruvic acid that is produced in glycolysis diffuses across themitochondrion’s double membrane into the matrix.mAcetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) – the product of a reaction involving pyruvicacid and coenzyme A.aOne carbon atom is lost during the reaction,which combine swith two oxygenmolecules to form CO 2 . The reaction also reduces a molecule of NAD + to NADH. NThe Krebs Cycle – a biochemical pathway that breaks down acetyl CoA, producinghydrogen atoms and ATP.hThe reactions that comprise the cycle were discovered in 1937 by Hans Adolf Krebs.Step 1: A two-carbon molecule of acetyl CoA combines with a four-carboncompound, oxaloacetic acid, to produce a six carbon compound, citric acid. Thisreaction regenerates coenzyme A, which moves back out to carry and changemore pyruvic acid.
 
Step 2: Citric acid releases a CO 2 molecule and a hydrogen atom to form a five-carbon compound. By losing a hydrogen atom with its electron, citric acid isoxidized. The hydrogen is transferred to NAD + , reducing it to NADH.oStep 3: The five-carbon compound formed in Step 2 also releases a CO 2molecule and a hydrogen atom, forming a four-carbon compound. Again, NAD +is reduces to NADH.A molecule of ATP is also synthesized from ADP.iStep 4: The four-carbon compound formed in Step 3 releases a hydrogen atom toform another four-carbon compound. This time, the hydrogen atom is used toreduce FAD to FADHLike NAD +, FAD accepts electrons during redox reactions.LStep 5: The four-carbon compound formed in Step 4 releases a hydrogen atom toregenerate oxaloacetic acid, which keeps the Krebs cycle operating. They hydrogen atomreduces NAD + to NADH.Electron Transport Chain – constitutes the second stage of aerobic respiration.EThe electrons in the hydrogen atoms from NADH and FADH are in a high energylevel. These electrons pass through a series of molecules, and lose a portion of their energy in the process.tEnergy shed off of electrons is used to pump protons from the mitochondrialmatrix to the other side of the inner membrane.The concentration of protons becomes greater on the outside the matrix. bThe concentration gradient drives chemiosmosis via the ATP synthase, located inthe inner membrane. Energy harnessed from protons moving back into the matrixsynthesizes ATP from ADP.sThe last molecule in the chain transfers electrons to oxygen atoms, whichcombine with four protons supplied by NADH and FADH 2 to form two moleculeof water.oEnergy YieldEIn total, the sum of all chemical reactions in aerobic respiration generate thefollowing amounts of NADH, FADH 2, and ATP:10 NADH – each molecule that supplies to the electron transport chain canmake up to 3 ATPm2 FADH 2 – each FADH 2 molecule can generate 2 ATP2The Krebs cycle and Glycolysis generate a product 4 ATPT38 ATP molecules are produced . However, the actual number of ATP

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