These additional pathways do not produce ATP. Instead, they regenerate NAD +which can be used to power glycolysis.wLactic Acid Fermentation – the process by which an enzyme converts pyruvicacid into another three-carbon compound,called lactic acid. NADH is oxidized back to NAD + . It occurs in muscle cells bWhen oxygen is once again available, the liver can convert lactic acid back into pyruvate. bAlcoholic Fermentation – the process by which cells convert pyruvic acid intoethyl alcohol. Yeast uses this pathway; and hence they form the basis for the wineand beer industryaOrganisms can only use alcoholic fermentation at concentration of alcoholat or below 14%. Otherwise,the organism could die.aEnergy YieldEKilocalorie (kcal) – a value used to obtain the efficiency of anaerobic pathways.The complete oxidation of a standard amount of glucose released 686 kcal.
Section 2 – Aerobic RespirationS
Overview Of Aerobic RespirationOMitochondrial Matrix – a space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.The pyruvic acid that is produced in glycolysis diffuses across themitochondrion’s double membrane into the matrix.mAcetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) – the product of a reaction involving pyruvicacid and coenzyme A.aOne carbon atom is lost during the reaction,which combine swith two oxygenmolecules to form CO 2 . The reaction also reduces a molecule of NAD + to NADH. NThe Krebs Cycle – a biochemical pathway that breaks down acetyl CoA, producinghydrogen atoms and ATP.hThe reactions that comprise the cycle were discovered in 1937 by Hans Adolf Krebs.K Step 1: A two-carbon molecule of acetyl CoA combines with a four-carboncompound, oxaloacetic acid, to produce a six carbon compound, citric acid. Thisreaction regenerates coenzyme A, which moves back out to carry and changemore pyruvic acid.