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Chapter 8- Cell Reproduction (Notes)

Chapter 8- Cell Reproduction (Notes)

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Published by: starr_lizzy on Sep 11, 2011
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Section 1 – Chromosomes
Chromosome StructureAs a cell prepares to divide, its DNA coils around proteins and twists into rod-shaped chromosomes.Each chromosome is a single DNA molecule associated with proteins.Histones – proteins within the chromosomes around which DNA wraps tightly.They maintain the shape of chromosomes and aid in the tight packing of DNA. Nonhistone – involved in controlling the activity of specific regions of the DNA.Chromatid – one of the two halves of chromosomes. The two halves are identicalto each other.Chromatids form as the DNA makes a copy of itself before beginning celldivision.When the cell divides, each of the two new cells will receive one chromatid fromeach chromosome.Centromere – holds the two chromatids together until they separate during celldivision.Between periods of cell division, DNA is uncoiled so that information can bemore easily read. The less tightly packed DNA cluster is called chromatinDNA is simpler in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes. It consists of only onechromosome which is attracted to the inside of the cell membrane. Chromosomesconsist of a circular DNA molecule and additional proteins.Chromosome NumbersEach species contains different numbers of chromosomes.Humans contain 23 pairs, giving a total of 46 . Some species,however, have the same amount of chromosomesHuman and animal chromosomes are categorized as either sex chromosomes or autosomes.Sex Chromosomes – chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism. Inhumans, sex chromosomes are either X or Y.XX, or two “X” chromosomes, denotes a normal female human.XY, or one “X” and one “Y” chromosome,denotes a normal male human.
Autosomes – the remaining 22 pairs of chromosomes.Every cell produced by sexual reproduction has two copies of each autosome. Theorganism receives one copy of each autosome from each parent.Homologous Chromosomes (homologues) – the two copies of each autosome.Homologues are the same size and shape and carry genes for the same trait.Karyotype – a photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a dividing cell found in a normalhuman.Diploid – cells having two sets of chromosomesDiploid cells have both chromosomes for each homologous pair. They also havetwo reproductive chromosomes.All normal human cells, except reproductive cells, are diploid cellsHaploid – contain only one set of chromosomes.Human sperm and egg cells are haploid. They have half the number of chromosomes present in diploid cells.Human haploid cells only have one chromosome of each homologous pair andone sex chromosomeWhen a sperm and egg cell combine, the result will bea diploid cell.If the reproductive cells were diploid, the new cell would have too manychromosomes and would not be able to function.
Section 2 – Cell Division
Cell Division In ProkaryotesBinary Fission – the division of a prokaryote cell into two different offspringcells.Binary Fission consists of three generalized steps.Step 1 (DNA Replication): The chromosome, which is attached to theinside of the cell membrane, copies itself, resulting in two identicalchromosomes attached to the inside of the prokaryote’s inner membrane.2.Step 2 (Chromosome Segregation): The cell continues to grow until it isroughly two times the size of the original. A cell wall forms between bothchromosomes.
Step 3 (Cytokinesis): The cell splits into two cells.Each of the cellscontains one of the chromosomes thatresulted from the copying of theoriginal.Cell Division In EukaryotesIn eukaryotic cell division, both the cytoplasm and the nucleus divide.Mitosis – results in new cells with genetic material that is identical to that of the originalcell. Mitosis occurs in there production of unicellular organisms as well as the addition of cells to a tissue or organ.Cell Cycle – the repeating set of events that make up a cell’s life.It consists of:Interphase – the time between cell division, divided into three phases:G 1 Phase is the first stage of interphase. Offspring cells grow to mature sizeS Phase (synthesis phase) is the second stage; in which chromosomes arereplicatedG 2 Phase is the third stage; during which cells prepare for cell division. It is thelast stage of interphase before mitosis beginsG 0 Phase is an “exit” phase in which a cell can leave the cell cycle.These cells do not copy their DNA and do not undergo cell division.Cells composing the central nervous system stop dividing at maturity and never divide again.Prophase – begins with the tight coiling and shortening of DNA into rod-shapedchromosomes.The two chromatids stay connected by the centriole.At this time, the nucleolus and nuclear membrane break down and disappear.Centrosomes – two pairs of dark spots that appear next to the deterioratingnucleus. Each centrosome contains a pair of small bodies called centriolesThe centrosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell, dragging spindle fiberswith them.Kinetochore Fibers – attach to a protein in the centromere of eachchromosome.

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