Autosomes – the remaining 22 pairs of chromosomes.Every cell produced by sexual reproduction has two copies of each autosome. Theorganism receives one copy of each autosome from each parent.Homologous Chromosomes (homologues) – the two copies of each autosome.Homologues are the same size and shape and carry genes for the same trait.Karyotype – a photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a dividing cell found in a normalhuman.Diploid – cells having two sets of chromosomesDiploid cells have both chromosomes for each homologous pair. They also havetwo reproductive chromosomes.All normal human cells, except reproductive cells, are diploid cellsHaploid – contain only one set of chromosomes.Human sperm and egg cells are haploid. They have half the number of chromosomes present in diploid cells.Human haploid cells only have one chromosome of each homologous pair andone sex chromosomeWhen a sperm and egg cell combine, the result will bea diploid cell.If the reproductive cells were diploid, the new cell would have too manychromosomes and would not be able to function.
Section 2 – Cell Division
Cell Division In ProkaryotesBinary Fission – the division of a prokaryote cell into two different offspringcells.Binary Fission consists of three generalized steps.Step 1 (DNA Replication): The chromosome, which is attached to theinside of the cell membrane, copies itself, resulting in two identicalchromosomes attached to the inside of the prokaryote’s inner membrane.2.Step 2 (Chromosome Segregation): The cell continues to grow until it isroughly two times the size of the original. A cell wall forms between bothchromosomes.