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Classic Chapter 11- Water Pollution

Classic Chapter 11- Water Pollution

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Published by Wayaya2009
water pollution
water pollution

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Published by: Wayaya2009 on Sep 12, 2011
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05/13/2013

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Chapter 11- Water Pollution11.1 Types of Water PollutionWater pollution- any contamination of water that lessen its value to humans and other species- aquaticand nonaquatic
recreation
unsuitable for irrigation
unsuitable for use in factories
unfit for domestic consumptionAffects both groundwater and surface watersSurface water- bodies of water in direct contact with the atmosphereGround water- water found in the groundIn saturated soilsIn aquifersClassified by:1.
 
Sourcea.
 
Point sourceb.
 
Nonpoint source2.
 
Chemical typea.
 
Sedimentb.
 
Inorganic nutrientsc.
 
Thermal pollutiond.
 
Disease-producing microorganismse.
 
Toxic organic chemicalsf.
 
Heavy metalsg.
 
Oxygen-demanding organic wastesPoint Source Water PollutionPoint source water pollution- has its source in a well-defined locationi.e. pipe through which a sewage treatment plant or factory discharges waste into either surface orgroundwaterNonpoint Source Water PollutionNonpoint source water pollution- does not arise from distinct point sources; when pollutants arewashed into bodies of water from large areasi.e. farmland where chemicals drain into groundwater or surface waters, pastures, constructionsites, cities, lawns, storm drains11.2 Major Pollutants, Prevention, and ControlTwo basic approaches for ensuring clean water supplies:1.
 
Water pollution controla.
 
Pollution control devices- technologies that remove pollutants from the effluents of factories and sewage treatment plantsi.
 
Usually applied to point sourcesii.
 
Pollutants are treated so they become less harmful, or are concentrated anddisposed of 1.
 
Often in landfillsiii.
 
Output controls- deal with the pollutant after is has been produced
 
1.
 
Expensive way of diverting pollution from one medium to another2.
 
Pollution prevention- a variety of measures that eliminate the production of pollutants infactories, water treatment plants, and nonpoint sourcesa.
 
Typically highly cost-effectiveb.
 
Input controls- eliminates pollutants by adjusting inputsc.
 
Throughput controls- alter the production of waste by adjustments of substancesflowing through a systemi.
 
i.e. recycling wastes in another processSediment PollutionSediment- includes sand, silt, and clay-inorganic soil particles- eroded from soilsOne of most destructive and costly water pollutants1 billion tons/yr of sediment
aquatic ecosystems in USWhere Does Sediment Come From?-Natural sourcesi.e. Bank erosion-Human sources- activities that lead to water and wind erosionFarmlandIn under-vegetated, or disturbed watersheds, sediment pollution in surface waters canreach elevated levelsConstruction sitesLand is bare until building is completed
10x higher erosion rates thancroplandTimber harvestingStrip-miningHarmful Effects-$1 million/day in damage in US riversDamages turbines, clogs canals, fills navigable rivers-Carry nutrient pollution and toxic chemicals-Suspended sediment blocks sunlightKills photosynthetic base of many aquatic food chainsReduces levels of dissolved oxygen in waters-Smothers breeding grounds of fish and buries shellfish habitat-Kills fish-Problems for municipalities-Threatens reservoirsControl of SedimentationInput Control-Proper application of erosion control strategiesConservation tillage, strip cropping, contour farming, terracing-Careful selection of construction sitesAvoid steep slopes-Controls on land disturbanceReducing denuded or bulldozed areasSodding and revegetating areas with a hydroseeder
 
 -Small dams places across drainage ditches-Sediment fencesOutput Control-Direct muddy water to swamps and marshes-Filter out the sediment-Sedimentation ponds-Dredging rivers-Removed from drinking water by chemical coagulation and sand filtrationInorganic Nutrient PollutionInorganic nutrient pollutants- nitrates and phosphatesNitrogen and phosphorous are limiting factors- essential elements that play key role in growth of individuals and populationsEssential in low concentrations, but become pollutants in large quantitiesNitrogen usually available in the form of NO3- ions or NH3 (ammonia)Phosphorus usually available as PO4 -3 ions (phosphate)Phosphorous less abundant, limiting nutrient in most freshwater lakes, riversThree Major Sources:1.
 
Agricultural fertilizers- promotes crop production because they are rich in nitratesand phosphatesa.
 
Commercial fertilizers- artificial, synthetic fertilizersb.
 
Animal wastes- manureFertilizer not absorbed by crop roots washed by runoff waters into surface watersStimulate population explosion of aquatic plants in aquatic systems2.
 
Domestic sewagea.
 
Human wastesb.
 
Household detergents3.
 
Livestock wastesa.
 
Feedlots- concentrated livestock facilities where animals are held forfattening before slaughteringb.
 
More animal waste is produced than human wastec.
 
Farming practicesd.
 
Domestic petsEffects of Inorganic Nutrients on Aquatic Ecosystems-Eutrophication- nutrient enrichment of an aquatic ecosystemNatural
 –
occurs over a period of hundreds-thousands of yearsAccelerated (cultural)
 –
sped up process due to release of excessive amounts of nutrients into aquatic ecosystems as a result of human activities80% N and 75% P entering surface waters in USEutrophication proceeding 100-1000 times faster than normal conditionsClassifying Lakes Based on Their ProductivityThree major types of lakes:1.
 
Oligotrophic- nutrient-poor

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