temperature, with stirring, for 4 d. The extraction solvent was evaporated to dryness. Samplesolutions were prepared by dissolving the extracts in extraction solvents.
Microbial test organisms
Test microorganisms included the following bacteria:
, Enterococcus faecalis
ATCC 13047D and the yeast,
Bacterial cultures were grown in Mueller-Hinton broth(Oxoid) at 37
C for 24 h and the yeast was incubated in glucose yeast extract broth at 30
Cfor 48 h. All the microorganisms were obtained from the Department of Biology, EgeUniversity, Izmir, Turkey.
Assay for antimicrobial activity
The assay was conducted as described by Perez
(1990) with slight modificationaccording to the present experimental conditions. Briefly, 50 µl inoculum (containingapproximately 10
bacteria per ml and 10
yeast per ml) were added to 25 ml melted Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium cooled at 50 °C. This was thenpoured into 90 mm diameter sterile Petri dishes, and maintained for 1 h at room temperature.Small wells (6 mm) were cut in the agar plate using a cork borer; 60 µl of extractconcentration with a negative control (EtOH 96° and chloroform, 60 µl) were loaded in thewells. The dishes were pre-incubated at 4 °C for 2 h to allow uniform diffusion into the agar.After pre-incubation, for bacteria, the plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 h, and28 °C for 48 h for yeast. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibitionzone diameter observed. In addition, commercial antibiotics [penicillin G (10 i.u.), nalidixicacid (30 µg), novobiocin (30 µg), ampicillin (10 µg), imipenem (10 µg), erythromycin (15µg), vancomycin (30 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg) and nystatin (10 µg)] were used aspositive control to determine the sensitivity of the strains. These studies were performed intriplicate.
The mean values were statistically analyzed with the MINITAB Release 13.20program by the general one-way (unstacked) analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find out themost effective extracts and the most sensitive test organisms. Similarity (%) of microorganisms in relation to their susceptibility to the mushroom extracts was analyzed bythe multivariate cluster analysis according to the data obtained from well diffusion assay.
Results and Discussion
Table 1 show the antimicrobial activities of the extracts obtained from
. As clearly seen from Table 1, with an inhibition zone of 20 and 19 mm, the ethanol extracts of
presented significantantibacterial activity against
, respectively. The ethanol extracts of
showed antiyeast activity against
, 19 and 20 mmrespectively. Also, the ethanol extract of
has antiyeast activity, with an inhibitionzone 17 mm. The ethanol extract of
was found to be active against
, 17 and 16 mm, respectively. Similarly, the ethanol extract of
hasantibacterial activity against