Roof Framing - Chapter Onehttp://www.acontractorslicense.com/books/rf-chapter.html[06/03/2011 6:37:56 PM]
is the reference plane for all roof cutting work. It's the line from which many important roof dimensions are measured. We'll call this the
A Simple Roof
Figure 1-2 shows a simple roof added to the framing in Figure 1-1. The roof shown would finish the roof cutter's work on this building.Notice that the roof has only two slopes. This is called a
By the end of the next chapter you'll know how to cut this simpleroof.Now we're going to look at this building from the direction of the arrow in Figure 1-2.
Span and Total Run
From the direction of the arrow in Figure 1-2 we can see two right triangles formed by the roof. These are
triangles becauseeach has one right (90 degree) angle.Look at Figure 1-3. Notice that both triangles are identical in every aspect. Whatever we calculate for one triangle will apply to theother.The width of the building is called the
For calculation purposes, we'll divide the span in half (as in Figure 1-3) to get the base ofone right triangle. We'll call half the span distance the
This is an important dimension to the roof cutter. See Figure 1-4.
This is the vertical height of the roof measured at the midpoint between opposite rafter plates (Figure 1-3). The word total tells us thatthis is the overall dimension to the highest point. The highest point is called the ridge.Total run is expressed only in feet (as in 14.75'), while total rise is usually expressed in feet and inches (as in 4' 3-1/2").Here are the terms we've used so far:
half the span of the building (expressed in feet).
the apparent height of the roof ridge above the rafter plate.
Unit Run and Unit Rise
Unit run and unit rise
are also key terms used in roof cutting. They're smaller segments, or building blocks, of the roof triangle. SeeFigure 1-5.The unit rise is expressed in inches from 1" to 24" of rise. When we say, "I have a 4 in 12 pitch roof," it means that the roof surfacerises 4" for every 12" moved along the line which identifies total run. In carpenter's language, the unit rise and unit run indicate theslope of the roof.Since our English system of linear measure is based on 12", or one foot, it's appropriate that 12" be the basic unit in roof cutting.Therefore, the
for a common rafter is always 12", or one foot. Later we'll see why the unit run for a regular hip rafter is 16.97"and the unit run of a regular octagon hip rafter is 12.988". These numbers are not arbitrary. They're fixed mathematical relationshipsbased on the 1-2" unit run of the common rafter.
The unit rise
can be anything the designer of the building wants. The unit rise expresses the steepness of the roof's slope as relatedto the 12" unit run. There are three common ways to note the particular slope: in words, such as "four in twelve," in numbers,expressed as a ratio such as "4:12," and a symbol, showing a horizontal line with 12 above the line and a vertical line with 4 besidethat line. See Figure 1-6.