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Saladin - Wikipedia Ing, The Free Encyclopedia

Saladin - Wikipedia Ing, The Free Encyclopedia

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Published by: master_nbl7316 on Oct 10, 2008
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ad-Di nYusuf ibnAyyub
Sultan of Egypt and Syri
Artistic representation of Saladin
ad-Di2n Yu2suf ibn Ayyu2b
c. 1137–1138
Tikrit, Iraq
March 4 1193 CE
Damascus, Syria
Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Nur ad-Din
Najm ad-DiUn AyyuUb
(Arabic: ?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D ; Kurdish: ?D?D?DSD?DOD?D?D?D?D?D?D?D?D
Selah'edînê Eyubî 
) (born, Tikrit, Iraq c. 1138, died March 4, 1193), better known as
inmedieval Europe, was a Sultan of Egypt and Syria. He was a Kurdish Muslim and led the Islamicopposition to the Third Crusade.At the height of his power, the Ayyubid dynasty he founded, ruled over Egypt, Syria, Iraq,Hejaz, and Yemen. He led Muslim resistance to the European Crusaders and eventuallyrecaptured Palestine from the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. As such, he is a notable figure inArab, Kurdish, and Muslim culture.Saladin was a strict practitioner of Sunni Islam. He did not maim, kill or retaliate against thosewhom he defeated, with the notable exception of certain events following the Battle of Hattin.His generally chivalrous behaviour was noted by Christian chroniclers, especially in the accountsof the siege of Krak in Moab.
Saladin, born
Yuô suf 
ad-Diô n ibn Ayyuô 
in 1138 from a predominantly Kurdish backgroundand ancestry. His family lived in Tikrit, Iraq where he was born during the Islamic world'sGolden Age. His father, Najm ad-Di•n Ayyu•b, was banned from Tikrit and moved to Mosulwhere he met Imaâd ad-Din Zengi, the Turkish atabeg or regent of Mosul at the time who wasalso the founder of the Zengid dynasty, who was leading Muslim forces against the Crusaders inEdessa.
citation needed 
Ima†d ad-Din Zengi appointed Najm ad-Din as the commander of his fortressin Baalbek. After the death of ImaØd ad-Din Zengi in 1146, his son, Nr ad-DiØn, became theregent of Mosul. Saladin received his name from Nu*r ad-Di*n and was sent to Damascus tocontinue his education and this was where he also completed his educational studies. Severalsources claim that during his studies he was more interested in religion than joining the military.Another factor which may have affected his interest in religion was that during the First Crusade
Jerusalem was taken by force from the Christians by surprise when the Islamic world had donenothing to start the offensive. The Muslim culture and the city was pillaged and much of theirculture lay in ruins for at least one hundred and four years. Saladin later rebelled against theChristian-held Jerusalem and won back the city.
Islam: Empire of Faith 
, a documentary madeby PBS in 2000, explores the impact the Islamic world had on Medieval Europe and the Westernworld today which documents his capture of the city and his rise as a hero of the Islamic world,and the fear he caused in Medieval Europe with his revolt.
Sultanof Egypt
"Saladin, king of Egypt" from a fifteenth century illuminated manuscript; the "globus"in his lefthand is a European symbol of kingly powerHis career in the military began when his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh, or simply named Shirkuh,started training him, Shirkuh was an important military commander under the emir NuÍr al-DiÍn,who was the son and successor of Zangiö. During three military expeditions led by Shiörkuöh intoEgypt to prevent its falling to the Latin Christian Crusaders who already ruled Jerusalem.Amalric I, the king of Jerusalem; Sha<war, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fa<
imid caliph;and Shibrkubh formed a struggle. After Shibrkubh's death and after ordering Shabwar's assassination,Saladin, in 1169 was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops in Egypt and vizier of theFaP
imid caliph there. Saladin was only 31 when he received the position in the military and triedto finish much of his uncle's work. His relatively quick rise to power was due to the fact he hadcome from Kurdish cultural background and is cited as having many talents including being aneffective and efficient military leader. He became from then onwards a Sultan of Egypt and hisclear demonstration of being an efficient leader quickly built up his reputation of a great leader,although he had received the title of king, many had referred to him as the Sultan of Egypt. Thefounding of the Ayyubid dynasty and restoring Sunni Islam in Egypt is all credited to Saladin.He expanded his territory westwards in the Maghreb and when his uncle was sent up the Nile topacify some resistance of the former Fatimid supporters, he continued on down the Red Sea toconquer Yemen.

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