2.2 Below 2 MHz radio waves follow the ground (ground wave propagation). One factorfor this is diffraction (waves are bound towards obstacles that have sizes in the orderof the wavelength), another factor is the current induced in the Earth’s surface, whichslows the wavefront near the earth, causing the wavefront to tilt downward. Severalreasons make low frequencies unusable in computer networks:
Lower frequencies also mean lower data rates according to Nyquist/Shannon asthe available bandwidth is less.
Lower frequencies also require large antennas for efficient transmission andreception. This might work for submarines, not for mobile phones.
Lower frequencies penetrate material more easily. Thus SDM is more difficult – cell size would increase dramatically and frequency reuse would be almostimpossible.2.3 Frequencies in the THz range, e.g., infrared, visible light, are easily blocked byobstacles and, thus, do not interfere with other transmissions. In this case, only thestandard safety regulations apply (e.g., laser emission). Most radio systems stay wellbeyond 100 GHz as it is not that simple to generate higher frequencies (in the lowerTHz range).2.4 The classical European approach was based on standardisation and regulationbefore any products were available. The EU governments founded ETSI toharmonize all national regulations. ETSI created the standards, all countries had tofollow. In the US companies develop systems and try to standardize them or themarket forces decide upon success. The FCC, e.g., only regulates the fairnessamong different systems but does not stipulate a certain system. The effects of thetwo different approaches are different. Many “governmental” standards in Europefailed completely, e.g., HIPERLAN 1, some succeeded only in Europe, e.g., ISDN,and however, some soon became a worldwide success story, e.g., GSM. For mostsystems the US approach worked better, first some initial products, then standards.One good example is the wireless LAN family 802.11, a good counter example is the