J. Andrew Coombs (argued), Annie S. Wang, Glendale, Cali-fornia, for plaintiff-appellee-cross-appellant Louis VuittonMalletier, S.A.David A. Gauntlett, James A. Lowe (argued), and RaymondK. Chan, Irvine, California, for defendants-appellants AkanocSolutions, Inc. and Steven Chen, and defendants-cross-appellees Managed Solutions Group, Inc.
GOULD, Circuit Judge:Louis Vuitton Malletier, S.A., sued Managed SolutionsGroup, Inc. (“MSG”), Akanoc Solutions, Inc., and StevenChen (collectively “Defendants”)
for contributory copyrightand trademark infringement, contending that Defendants wereliable for their role in hosting websites that directly infringedLouis Vuitton’s trademarks and copyrights. After a trial, a jury found Defendants liable and awarded damages againsteach defendant. In response to Defendants’ motion for judg-ment as a matter of law, the district court set aside the jury’sverdict and award against MSG. The district court otherwisedenied the motion.
For convenience, we refer throughout this opinion to the three defen-dants collectively as “Defendants” and to Akanoc and Chen as “Appel-lants.” Defendant MSG is not an appellant, but is a cross-appellee.