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Business Ethics Tybms - 2

Business Ethics Tybms - 2

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Published by: harpreet_ladhad on Sep 14, 2011
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Business Ethics & Corporate Social Responsibility
TY-BMS (Sem – 5)
Section – 2
A) Indian Perspective of Ethics
1.
Purusharthas: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha
2.
Concept of Dharma
B) Ethics: A Global Perspective
:
1.
Ethics in Global Marketing & Advertising
2.
Ethical perspective in Employment including the international labourOrganization Std.
3.
Ethics and IT: E-commerce, Privacy Codes.
4.
Environmental Ethics: Indian and Western perspectives
5.
Ethics and Cross- culture influences
6.
Ethical issues and functional aspects of business
A)
Indian Perspective of Ethics
1.Purusharthas: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha2.Concept of Dharma
Purusha
means either
G
od or a human being.Artha means an object or objective. "Purusharthas" means objectivesof a human being. Purusha does not mean male in the physical sense,but any soul in its differentiated aspect.
So the purusharthas are applicable to both men and women equally. The purusharthas serve as pointers in the life of a human being. They arebased on the vision of God which is evident in the creation He manifestedand which can be followed by man to be part of that vision and inharmony with His aims. His worlds are established on the principles of dharma. They are filled with the abundance of material and spiritualbeings and energies, who seek fulfillment by achieving their desires andliberation. Since man is God in his microcosmic aspect, he too shouldemulate God and manifest the same reality in his own little world. Heshould pursue the same aims, experience life in its fullness and be aninstrument of God by serving the purpose for which he has been created. The four chief aims or purusharthas are:
1. Dharma (righteousness),2. Artha (wealth),3. Kama (desire) and4. Moksha (salvation or liberation)
 The rationale behind these purusharthas becomes clear whenwe consider the basic tenets of Hinduism. Man is an aspect of God. Heis God's objective reality in creation. He exists in relationship with Godlike a reflection in the mirror that is somewhat different yet inseparable
Prof. Abdul Kadir Khan
1
 
Business Ethics & Corporate Social Responsibility
TY-BMS (Sem – 5)
and somewhat similar. Veiled in him is the true self by the influenceand involvement of Prakriti or primordial nature. The purpose of his life upon earth is to follow the law (dharma) of Godand achievesalvation(moksha) or freedom from his false self (ahamkara) by leading a balanced life in which both material comfortsand human passions have their own place and legitimacy.
Man cannot simply take birth on earth and start working for his salvationright away by means of just dharma alone. If that is so man would neverrealize why he would have to seek liberation in the first place. As hepasses through the rigors of life and experiences the problem of humansuffering, he learns to appreciate the value of liberation. He becomessincere in his quest for salvation. So we have the four goals, instead of  just one, whose pursuit provides us with an opportunity to learn importantlessons and move forward on the spiritual path. What the purusharthascharacterize is not a life of self-negation, but of balance, complexity,richness, opportunities and moderation in a cosmic drama of immenseproportions in which man ultimately envisions and experiences his truegrandeur and fulfills the very purpose of his creation.Every individual in Hindu society is expected to achieve these fourobjectives with detachment, without any expectation and as a sacrificialoffering to God in the ritual of human life. They have to be pursuedselflessly for a higher and greater cause. Depending upon the attitude andthe manner in which we pursue them, they either set us free or entangleus deeper with the allurements of human life.
Dharma
 The first of the goals is dharma, a word which is difficult to translate inEnglish. Since the same word is used in many eastern religions, it meansmany things to many people and eludes a true definition. It has beenvariously translated as duty, faith, religion, righteousness, sacred law, justice,ethics, and morality and so on. According to one school of Hinduism, dharmais an obligatory duty as prescribed by the Vedas to be performed by anindividual in accordance with the rules prescribed for the caste to which he orshe belongs. God is an upholder of dharma because he performs His dutieseven though they are not obligatory and He is without desire or preference. There is no word in Latin or English that can truly explain the complexmeaning of dharma. Its first letter "dha" is also the first letter of dharitri, theearth, which is suggestive of its connection with the earth or earthly life. In awider sense, dharma is the secret glue, the binding force, which upholds andregulates this entire creation just as the gravitational force controls and holdsthe entire material universe as one piece. It is the divine constitution that
Prof. Abdul Kadir Khan
2
 
Business Ethics & Corporate Social Responsibility
TY-BMS (Sem – 5)
defines our roles and responsibilities, our social and moral order, our purposeand goals and the rewards and punishments that are appropriate for ouractions. It is the law of God that is sacred, inviolable and pervasive. It isresponsible for order, regularity, harmony, control, predictability andaccountability. According to Manusmriti, dharma is four footed in the Kritaage and loses one leg in each successive age. Thus in the fourth and last ageof Kali, it becomes crippled and rests upon just one leg.Dharma exists in all planes, in all aspects and at all levels of creation. In thecontext of human life, dharma consists of all that an individual undertakes inharmony with divine injunctions and his own sense of morality and justice.However to comprehend the true nature of dharma is not an easy task. Theworld is enveloped in illusion as our human minds are. What we see in theworld and learn from it may not be true and reliable. What we consider asright and wrong or dharma and adharma may not stand the test of truth.Hence to practice dharma we are advised to rely upon the scriptures andfollow the injunctions contained there in. The sources of dharma are theVedas, theVedangas, the Sutra literature of  which the most important are theDharmashastras, and scriptures such astheBhagavadgita. In ancient India dharmashastras (law books) played animportant role in guiding people on the path of dharma. It is however difficultto say how far they are relevant in the present age. One should alsoremember that dharma should not be viewed as end in itself but the meansto a still higher end, liberation.
Artha
Artha means wealth. Hinduism recognizes the importance of material wealthfor the overall happiness and well being of an individual. A house holderrequires wealth, because he has to perform many duties to uphold dharmaand take care of the needs of his family and society. A person should notseek wealth for wealth sake but to uphold dharma and help the members of his family and society achieve their goals. Hinduism therefore rightly placesmaterial wealth as the second most important objective in human life. Whiledharma and moksha are meant for oneself, wealth and sex are to be pursuedfor the sake of others. LordVishnuis the best role model for anyhouseholder. He leads a luxurious life, served by the goddess of wealthherself, but is very dutiful, helpful, responsive and righteous. So was LordKrishna while he was in human form. He lived a very luxurious life, but wasrighteous, detached and balanced.Hinduism advocates austerity, simplicity and detachment, but does notglorify poverty. Wealth is not an impediment to self-realization, butattachment to wealth is. Desire for wealth is different from greed for wealth.Selfless desire for wealth is preferable to selfish desire for wealth. Money andwealth are a form of divine energy. God is abundance. He is endowed witheight kinds of wealth. But asSri Aurobindopointed out we have negative
Prof. Abdul Kadir Khan
3

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