active ingredient.' In other words, what the producers and retailers of homeopathic drugs market
as "medications" are nothing more than solutions that are devoid of active ingredients (often thesolutions are simply water), which then have been combined with various inactive ingredients,such as balls of ordinary sugar.Homeopathy, which was developed and popularized in the late 18th century by the Germanphysician Samuel Hahnemann, purports to stimulate the body's ability to heal itself byadministering vanishingly small doses of highly diluted substances.
Homeopathy is based on
two principles, both of which contradict basic, well-established laws of modern chemistry andpharmacology: the "principle of similars," which holds that a disease can be cured by a substancethat produces similar symptoms in healthy people; and the "principle of dilutions," which holdsthat the lower the dose of the medication, the greater its effectiveness.
Hahnemann's teachings, most homeopathic remedies sold today have been diluted repeatedly tothe extent that not a single molecule of the alleged healing substance remains.4As one would expect, the scientific evidence establishes that any apparent benefits fromhomeopathic drugs are mere placebo effects.
The medical journal
published a comprehensive review of homeopathic treatments in
The authors analyzed every clinical investigation then published on the effects ofhomeopathy. Their analysis identified 110 well-designed investigations into its effects. The
results of those trials were then compared to 110 well-designed investigations of conventionalmedical therapies for the same ailments. The authors concluded:Biases are present in placebo-controlled trials of both homoeopathy and conventionalmedicine. When account was taken for these biases in the analysis, there was weakHomeopaths denote a 1-to-100 dilution by the letter "C," and a 1-to-10 dilution by the letter
"X." For example, a "6X" homeopathic preparation is a 1-to-10 dilution repeated six times,
leaving the alleged active ingredient as one part per million. Homeopathic drugs designated as24X, 12C or higher contain, on average, no molecules of the original substance from which they
Stehlin, Isadora. "Homeopathy: real medicine or empty
Dec. 1996. Available online athttp://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1370/is_n10_v30/ai_18979004/.
National Institutes of Health ("NIH") National Center for Complimentary and Alternative
Medicine Backgrounder: Homeopathy, An Introduction (July 2009). Available online at
Shang A, Huwiler-Miintener K, Nartey L, et al. "Are the clinical effects of homoeopathyplacebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy."
2005; 366: 726-732. Available online at
http ://www. thelanc et. com/j ournals/lancet/article/PIIS 0140-6736(05)67177-2/fulltext. (Attached
hereto as Exhibit A.)