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Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter 2008

Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter 2008

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Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter, issue 15, 2008
Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter, issue 15, 2008

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Published by: John G. Wolbach Library on Sep 14, 2011
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06/28/2014

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Chandra News
Winter 2008
Published by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC)
Issue number 15
HETG Observations of Hot Stars: From Predicted to Bizarre
Norbert S. Schulz, Paola Testa, David P. Huenemoerder, Claude R. Canizares
FIGURE 1:
Cumulative images of 8 HETG exposures of the central region of the Orion Trapezium Cluster with alignedzero orders centered on
θ
1
Ori C for a total exposure of approximately 300 ks and with a logarithmic intensity scale. Theradial features are the dispersed HETG spectra, color coded according to first order CCD energy. Most streaks are from theX-ray brightest stars
θ
1
Ori A, C, and E (article p.3).
 
2
CXC Newsletter 
CONTENTS
HETG Observations of Hot Stars: From Pre-dicted to Bizarre1CIAO 4.0 Overview29Project Scientists Report8CIAO 4 Infrastructure – Moving in a ModularDirection30CXC Project Managers Report9Status of the
Chandra
Source Catalog Project33Instruments: ACIS11Getting More from Your Multicore: ExploitingOpenMP for Astronomy35Instruments: HRC13CXC Contact Personnel35Instruments: HETG16
Chandra
Deep Field South: Merged Datasets forthe 2000 and 2007 Observations38Instruments: LETG17News from the
Chandra
Data Archive39
Chandra
-Related Meetings Planned for ThisYear19Useful
Chandra
Web Addresses40
Chandra
Calibration20X-Ray Astronomy School40
Chandra
Calibration Workshop21The Results of the Cycle 9 Peer Review42Prospects and Perspective:
Chandra
in theFuture21Education and Public Outreach Proposals Se-lected in Cycle 946
Chandra
Important Dates 200825
Chandra
UsersCommittee Membership List49New ObsVis Functionality!26
Chandra
Fellows for 200850CXC 2007 Science Press Releases27They Might Be Giants: X-ray Secrets of Saturnand Jupiter50Radio Galaxies in the
Chandra
Era28
 
3
Winter, 2007 
he
impact of broadband high resolutionX-ray spectroscopy on stellar astronomysince the launch of 
Chandra
and XMM-Newton hasbeen outstanding. Specifically our understandingof the X-ray production in hot stars has made sig-nificant advances. Moreover, many of the observedX-ray spectral properties did not match predictionsfrom standard models and previously analyzed lowresolution spectra. Even today interpretations areincomplete at best and highly debated. In this re-spect young massive stars seem to behave particu-larly oddly and long HETG exposures of young em-bedded clusters cores (Figure 1) have now becomeavailable. This article summarizes advances madefrom
Chandra
HETG spectra. A comprehensive at-las of HETG spectra of hot stars in the
Chandra
dataarchive can be found under
http://cxc.harvard.edu/  XATLAS 
and by Westbrook et al. (2007).
X-Ray Emission from Radiation Driven Winds
The
Chandra
archive currently contains manyHETG observations of OB stars, which have beenre-analyzed and discussed with respect to their na-ture as main sequence stars, giants, and supergi-ants (Waldron & Cassinelli 2007). They range fromtypes B0.5V (β Cru) to O4If (ζ
 
Pup) and surfacetemperatures from 28000 K to 45000 K. HETGspectra of most stars indicate plasma temperaturesin the range between about 2 to 25 MK and containstrong lines from He- and H-like ions from N, O,Ne, Mg, Si, and S. X-ray plasmas of temperatureswell beyond 25 MK contain lines from highly ion-ized Ar, Ca, and Fe ions. The line fluxes are gener-ally very strong. Figure 2 shows plasma temperaturedistributions from several OB stars. Most O stars inthe
Chandra
archive sample show standard distribu-tions generally lying within the gray area, B stars areup to an order of magnitude lower. Enhanced winds,i.e. through magnetic activity such as observed inθ
1
Ori C and τ Sco (see below), show unusually hotdistributions. Within the standard sample some dif-ferences between main sequence stars, giants, andsupergiants have now been detected as well (Wal-dron & Cassinelli 2007).
The Standard Picture
Early X-ray observations with EINSTEIN andROSAT led to the development of a basic shockmodel in which line-driven instabilities acceleratewind plasmas to high velocities. Models today arediverse in detail but despite their differences predictsoft X-ray emissivities up to only a few ten MK,broad and asymmetric lines, and in some cases mea-surable blueshifts. The prototype for such a behav-ior was seen in the very early supergiant ζ Pup withevidence that the X-ray sources are shocks embed-ded in the wind (Cassinelli et al. 2001). However,even this prototype star did not live up to expecta-tions and as encountered in many other stars whereline profiles remained fairly symmetric and withoutmeasurable blueshifts (see Figure 3), interpretationsremain problematic (Waldron & Cassinelli 2007).Statistics show that in many cases the line widthsare substantial with a trend to be somewhat narrow-FIGURE 2: Emission measure or plasmatemperature distributions of a variety of hotstars as compiled by Wojdowski & Schulz(2005). The grey area indicated the locationof O-stars following the standard picture.
HETG Observations of HotStars (
cont. from p.1
)

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