impact of broadband high resolutionX-ray spectroscopy on stellar astronomysince the launch of
and XMM-Newton hasbeen outstanding. Speciﬁcally our understandingof the X-ray production in hot stars has made sig-niﬁcant advances. Moreover, many of the observedX-ray spectral properties did not match predictionsfrom standard models and previously analyzed lowresolution spectra. Even today interpretations areincomplete at best and highly debated. In this re-spect young massive stars seem to behave particu-larly oddly and long HETG exposures of young em-bedded clusters cores (Figure 1) have now becomeavailable. This article summarizes advances madefrom
HETG spectra. A comprehensive at-las of HETG spectra of hot stars in the
dataarchive can be found under
and by Westbrook et al. (2007).
X-Ray Emission from Radiation Driven Winds
archive currently contains manyHETG observations of OB stars, which have beenre-analyzed and discussed with respect to their na-ture as main sequence stars, giants, and supergi-ants (Waldron & Cassinelli 2007). They range fromtypes B0.5V (β Cru) to O4If (ζ
Pup) and surfacetemperatures from 28000 K to 45000 K. HETGspectra of most stars indicate plasma temperaturesin the range between about 2 to 25 MK and containstrong lines from He- and H-like ions from N, O,Ne, Mg, Si, and S. X-ray plasmas of temperatureswell beyond 25 MK contain lines from highly ion-ized Ar, Ca, and Fe ions. The line ﬂuxes are gener-ally very strong. Figure 2 shows plasma temperaturedistributions from several OB stars. Most O stars inthe
archive sample show standard distribu-tions generally lying within the gray area, B stars areup to an order of magnitude lower. Enhanced winds,i.e. through magnetic activity such as observed inθ
Ori C and τ Sco (see below), show unusually hotdistributions. Within the standard sample some dif-ferences between main sequence stars, giants, andsupergiants have now been detected as well (Wal-dron & Cassinelli 2007).
The Standard Picture
Early X-ray observations with EINSTEIN andROSAT led to the development of a basic shockmodel in which line-driven instabilities acceleratewind plasmas to high velocities. Models today arediverse in detail but despite their differences predictsoft X-ray emissivities up to only a few ten MK,broad and asymmetric lines, and in some cases mea-surable blueshifts. The prototype for such a behav-ior was seen in the very early supergiant ζ Pup withevidence that the X-ray sources are shocks embed-ded in the wind (Cassinelli et al. 2001). However,even this prototype star did not live up to expecta-tions and as encountered in many other stars whereline proﬁles remained fairly symmetric and withoutmeasurable blueshifts (see Figure 3), interpretationsremain problematic (Waldron & Cassinelli 2007).Statistics show that in many cases the line widthsare substantial with a trend to be somewhat narrow-FIGURE 2: Emission measure or plasmatemperature distributions of a variety of hotstars as compiled by Wojdowski & Schulz(2005). The grey area indicated the locationof O-stars following the standard picture.
HETG Observations of HotStars (
cont. from p.1