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Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter 2011

Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter 2011

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Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter, issue 18, 2011
Chandra X-ray Observatory Newsletter, issue 18, 2011

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: John G. Wolbach Library on Sep 14, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/04/2012

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S
tudieS
 
of
d
ark
e
nergy
 
with
 X-
ray
o
bServatorieS
Alexey Vikhlinin
C
handra
n
ews
Spring 2011
Published by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC)
Issue Number 18
m
    w
     0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6−2.5−2−1.5−1−0.50
CMBSNIaCluster fgas
 
0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
DE
     w
          0
B    A    O    
 S  NI a
W     M     A     P     
clustersall
(
see
 
page
3
for
 
artiCle
)
handra
 
is
 
healthy
,
with
 
good
 
prospects
 
for
 
a
20-
year
 
mission
(
see
 
article
 
on
 
p
. 34)
 
s
tudies
 
of
d
ark
e
nergy
 
with
X-
ray
o
bservatories
 
Alexey Vikhlinin3
p
rojeCt
s
Cientist
'
s
r
eport
Martin Weisskopf9
p
rojeCt
M
anager
'
s
r
eport
Roger Brissenden10
i
nstruMents
: aCis
Paul Plucinsky, RoyceBuehler, Nancy Adams-Wolk, Gregg Germain11
i
nstruMents
: hrC
Ralph Kraft, MikhailRevnivstev, Mike Juda12
C
 handra
i
Mportant
d
ates
 
13
i
nstruMents
: hetg
Dan Dewey14
i
nstruMents
: letg
Jeremy J. Drake18
r
eCent
u
pdates
 
to
 
C
 handra
 
C
alibration
Larry P. David20
Ciao 4.3
Antonella Fruscione21
s
herpa
, p
ython
 
and
o
ptiMi
-
zation
Aneta Siemiginowska23
C
 handra
 
r
elated
M
eetings
 
26
C
 handra
s
CienCe
w
orkshop
:s
truCture
 
in
C
lusters
 
and
 g
roups
 
of
g
alaXies
 
in
 
the
 C
 handra
 
e
ra
27
a
toM
db 2.0 r
eleased
Adam Foster, Li Ji,Randall Smith,Nancy Brickhouse28
C
 handra
f
ootprint
s
erviCe
Aaron Watry, Arnold Rots28
r
eCent
 
C
 handra
 
d
ataset
 i
dentifiers
Sherry Winkelman29
r
etireMent
 
of
l
ongtiMe
 n
ewsletter
e
ditor
Harvey Tananbaum,Belinda Wilkes30
r
efleCtions
 
froM
 
the
o
ut
-
going
e
ditor
Nancy Remage Evans30
C
 handra
: p
roMises
M
ade
 
and
k
ept
Wallace Tucker31
u
pbeat
 
on
 
C
 handra
s
l
on
-
gevity
Paul Viens,Sabina Bucher Hurley34
i
nternational
X-
ray
o
bser
-
vatory
u
pdate
 
Michael Garcia35
t
he
a
esthetiCs
 
of
(X-
ray
)a
stronoMy
Kim Kowal Arcand36
w
oMen
 
in
 
the
h
igh
-e
nergy
 u
niverse
Kim Kowal Arcand37
s
CienCe
 
for
 
C
 handra
s
s
eC
-
ond
d
eCade
Belinda Wilkes38
r
esults
 
of
 
the
C
yCle
12p
eer
r
eview
Belinda Wilkes38
CXC C
ontaCt
p
ersonnel
43
CXC 2010 p
ress
r
eleases
Megan Watzke44
M
assey
a
ward
g
iven
 
to
 h
arvey
t
ananbauM
 
Megan Watzke,Peter Edmonds45
 C
 handra
w
eb
a
ddresses
 
45
f
roM
j
ournal
p
aper
 
to
 n
ewspaper
Peter Edmonds,Megan Watzke46
C
 handra
u
sers
C
oMMittee
47
ngC 5813
48
T
able
 
of
C
onTenTs
 
3
Spring, 2011
I review the contribution of 
Chandra
X-ray Observatoryto studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the ex-pansion rate of the Universe, and slow-down in the rateof growth of cosmic structures.
Chandra
has detected andmeasured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. Combination of the
Chandra
results withother cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on thedark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits pos-sible deviations of gravity on large scales from GeneralRelativity.
Introduction
he
accelerated expansion of the Universe discov-ered in 1998 [1, 2] and the associated problem of dark energy are widely considered as one of the greatestunsolved problems in science. In this short article, I willsummarize the contribution of X-ray astronomy (primar-ily,
Chandra
and
 XMM-Newton
) to the currently emergingpicture of empirical properties of dark energy.There are two main observable manifestations of 
dark energy. The rst is its effect on the expansion rate of 
the Universe as a whole, which can be probed through thedistance-redshift relation using “standard candles” suchas type Ia supernovae, or standard rulers such as baryonicacoustic oscillations in the large-scale distribution of gal-axies [3]. This broad class of cosmological observationsis often referred to as “geometric” methods. The secondeffect is the impact of dark energy on the rate of growth of large-scale structures. As the Universe enters the acceler-ated expansion phase around
 z
� 0.8, it is expected that
the rate of structure growth slows down. If this effect is
observed sufciently accurately – e.g., through weak lens
-ing on the large-scale structures, redshift-space distortionsin the distribution of galaxies [4], or through evolution of 
galaxy clusters as described below – it should signicantly
improve constraints on dark energy properties in combi-nation with the geometric methods [3]. In addition, thegrowth of large-scale structures can be used to test, or putlimits on, any departures from General Relativity on the10—100 Mpc scales [5].X-ray astronomy's contribution to observational cos-mology is primarily through studies of galaxy clusters.Cluster observations provide both the geometrical andgrowth of structure cosmological tests. The distance-red-shift relation can be measured either through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich [6] effect, or using the expected universality of the intracluster gas mass fraction,
 f 
gas
=
M
gas
/M
tot
[7,8]. Bothmethods can also be used to determine the absolute valueof the Hubble constant through observations of low-
 z
clus-ters
1
. The mass function of galaxy clusters is exponential-ly sensitive to the underlying amplitude of linear densityperturbations and therefore can be used to implement thegrowth of structure test [11].In the
Chandra
and
 XMM-Newton
era, X-ray obser-
vations of galaxy clusters have reached sufcient maturity
for a successful implementation of both types of cosmo-
logical tests. This success is based on signicant advances
in our ability to select and statistically characterize largecluster samples, and to get detailed X-ray data at both lowand high redshifts. At the same time, quick progress intheoretical modeling of clusters (see [12] for a recent re-view) resulted in better understanding of their physics andimproved ability to obtain reliable mass estimates from thedata. These advances are reviewed below.
Progress in understanding of clusters
Samples
The
 ROSAT 
mission which operated in the 1990sproved to be a great resource for selecting large, completesamples of massive galaxy clusters reaching redshifts be-yond
 z
=1 [13].
 ROSAT 
carried out surveys in a wide rangeof sensitivity and solid angle. The sensitivity and angularresolution in the all-sky survey mode are well-suited fordetection of clusters at low redshifts (e.g., the BCS andREFLEX surveys, [14, 15]). With substantial effort on the
optical identication side, the all-sky survey data can be
used to select exceptionally massive clusters out to
 z
~ 0.5(MACS survey, [16]). In the pointed mode,
 ROSAT PSPC 
 covered just over 2% of the extragalactic sky. However,the sensitivity and angular resolution in the pointed mode
are sufcient for detection of 
 z
~
 
0.6 clusters with massesmatching those of the low-
 z
objects detected in the all-skysurvey. Just such a sample of clusters is provided by the400d survey [17]. The REFLEX, MACS, and 400d sur-veys, several hundred clusters each, are the main sources
S
tudieS
 
of
d
ark
e
nergy
 
with
 X-
ray
o
bServatorieS
Alexey Vikhlinin
1
Combining the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect observations and X-ray datafor the same cluster naturally provides the absolute distance to the object[9]. In the gas fraction method, it is assumed that the baryon mass frac-tion within clusters,
 f 
b
, approximates the mean cosmic value, Ω
b
/
/
Ω
m
.The absolute value of this ratio is now very well known from the CMBdata [10]. On the other hand, the mass fraction of the hot intracluster gas,the dominant baryonic component in clusters, derived from the X-raydata is proportional to
h
-3/2
(see below in the text), therefore
h
can be ex-tracted from these measurements after correcting
 f 
gas
for the contributionof stellar mass to the total baryon budget.

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