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The Ethnic Origins of the Friends of the Antigonid Kings of Macedon

The Ethnic Origins of the Friends of the Antigonid Kings of Macedon

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Published by MACENTO
This is a scientific paper by the Australian classics scholar James L. O'Neil written and published in 'The Classical Quarterly', New Series, Vol. 53, No. 2 (November, 2003), pp. 510-522

In it the author analyzes and lists the ethnic background and nationality of the senior and junior officers serving the Macedonian kings from the Antigonid dynasty (Demetrius I, Antigonus Gonatas, Demetrius II, Antigonus Doson, Philip V, and Perseus).
His research supported by the ancient sources reveals that the Antigonid kings of Macedonia in general used a lesser number of Macedonians in the highest positions of the kingdom then at the time of Alexander III (the Great) and his father Philip II.

After the original version of the paper written in English, there is a translation in Macedonian.
This is a scientific paper by the Australian classics scholar James L. O'Neil written and published in 'The Classical Quarterly', New Series, Vol. 53, No. 2 (November, 2003), pp. 510-522

In it the author analyzes and lists the ethnic background and nationality of the senior and junior officers serving the Macedonian kings from the Antigonid dynasty (Demetrius I, Antigonus Gonatas, Demetrius II, Antigonus Doson, Philip V, and Perseus).
His research supported by the ancient sources reveals that the Antigonid kings of Macedonia in general used a lesser number of Macedonians in the highest positions of the kingdom then at the time of Alexander III (the Great) and his father Philip II.

After the original version of the paper written in English, there is a translation in Macedonian.

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Published by: MACENTO on Sep 14, 2011
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ClassicalQuarterly3.2 510-522(2003)Printed n GreatBritain510
THEETHNICORIGINS OFTHEFRIENDSOF THEANTIGONIDKINGSOFMACEDON
Polybius(8.9.6-10.11) reportsthatTheopompussaid thatPhilipofMacedonencouragedmen of dubiouscharacter from all over Greece and the barbarian worldto cometo Macedonand become his hetairoi.1 Aspartof his refutation of Theo-pompus'claims,Polybiussaysthatafter thedeath of Alexander these menshowedtheir worthby dividing upmost of the known worldamongthemselves.However,Alexander's hetairoi and successorswerenotdrawn from mostof theworld,but werelargelyMacedonian inorigin.Berve lists apossiblethirteen out ofsixty-onehetairoi of AlexanderasbeingofGreekorigin.2 Onlyone oftheremainderwas aPersian,so thereareforty-sevenMacedonians;inotherwords,77percent were Macedonians and21percentGreek.However,Greeks wereprominentinperipheralroles,such as thechancelleryand asengineers,3buthadlimited command roles.Thelimitation on the careersofNearchusthe Cretan and Eumenes of Cardia aresignsof thepredominanceof Macedonians atAlexander'scourt.4Lysimachushas been seen as anexampleof a GreeksucceedinginMacedonianservice,as his fatherAgathoclesissaidtohave beenaThessalian
penestes,5
but it seemsunlikelythat themanwho drovePyrrhusofEpirusout ofMacedonbyawhisperingcampaignon his non-Macedonianorigin(Plut.Pyrrh.12.10),was not Macedonianhimself.Infact,we find MacedonianscommandingGreektroops,Thracians,and even thenavy,whichwould havebeenlargelymannedbyGreeks.6WithinMacedonitself,thecontingentsfromUpperMacedon seem tohave beencommandedlargely byUpperMacedonians.7Inthe timeofAlexander,theMacedonianoriginof their commanderswasimportantfor Macedoniantroops,andMacedonians werejealousof othergroupswinningcommandpositionsofanysort.Theopompus maynot have beendescribingthosecompanionswhoheldcommandpositions,asPolybiusthought, thoughwe should noteTheopompus'hostilitytowardsPhilip here.8 Polybius'errorcan beexplainedas a result ofanachronism.Inhis own'ThePolybiusassage,FGrH115F225a,overlapswith F225b(=Ath. 6.260df.).Cf.F 224=Ath. 4.166ff.,for similar entiments.
2
H.Berve,Das AlexanderreichaufprosopographischerGrundlage Munich,1926),31. On the
natureofroyalriends,eeG.Herman,The"friends"f theearlyHellenisticulers: ervants rofficials?',Talanta2/131980/81),103ff.,112.
3
Berven. 2),43,157.
4
WHeckel,The MarshalsofAlexander'sEmpire(Londonand NewYork,1992),206, 28;P.A.Brunt,ArrianII:The AnabasisofAlexander(Cambridge,MA,1983),444;Berve(n. 2),43. On
MacedonianostilityoEumenes f Cardia: lut.Eumenes, 18, 20;Diod.19.60.3.
5
TheopompusFGrH115F81saysthisofanAgathocles,he name ofLysimachus'ather.H. S.Lund,LysimachusLondon, 1992),2acceptshatLysimachus'atherhad beenThessalianinorigin,but not apenestes.rwinL.Merker,Lysimachus,hessalian rMacedonian?',hiron9(1979),31-36rejectsheview thatLysimachuswas Thessalian.A. B.Tataki,MacedoniansAbroadAthens,1998),156describesimas a MacedonianromPellaandmakesno mentionofaThessalianrigin.
6
Berven. 2),141,139,159.
7
Berve(n. 2),114ff.;Heckel(n. 4),58;Brunt(n. 4),vol.1,xliii.M. B.Hatzopoulos,
Macedonian Institutions undertheKings1(Athens,1996),481-2.
8
W.R.Connor,TheopompusandFifthCenturyAthens(Cambridge,MA,1968),15.
 
ETHNIC ORIGINS511
time,foreignerswereemployedinhigh-ranking positionsinMacedonian service moreoften thaninAlexander's time. Thiswastrue,notonlyinthe easternkingdoms,wheretheroyalfriends werepredominantlyGreeks orMacedonians,9but also inMacedonitself.Thetitlephilos replacestheolder hetairosinHellenistictimes,but the twogroupshavesimilar roles.'0Down tothebattleofIpsusin 301 B.C.Macedonians were the mostprominentgroupofroyalservantsinthekingdomofAntigonus Monopthalmus,which did notinclude Macedonitself.Billows lists128probable royalfriends in hisAppendixThree,of whomthirty-oneareMacedonians,making24percent of thetotal.Overall,thereareforty-threeGreeks,making34percent,butthese are drawn fromawide area.Twelve come from theGreekmainland,andthesame number from Asia Minor(amountingto 9percenteach),ten from theislands,six from the GreekcitiesinThrace,two fromCyrene,and thereisoneCypriot.ThegoverningclassinAntigonus'kingdomwere thuslargelyforeignersinthe landsheruled(comparedwith sevenidentifiableorientals-only5.5percentof thetotal),withalargenumber of Greekssupplementingthe Macedonianel1ite."IInordertoexaminetheethnicoriginsof the friends of theAntigonidkingsofMacedon,to show that the roleplayedbyGreekswascloser to that found in thekingdomofAntigonusIand other Hellenistic monarchies than the one underAlexander theGreat,I willlook at all those who areidentifiedin thesources as friendsor advisersofthekings,those who heldmilitarycommands orgovernedprovincesorcitiesor served asroyalambassadors.I will notlook atintellectuals, unless,likeHieronymusofCardiaortheStoicphilosopherPersaeus,theyalsoservedinoneofthecapacitieslisted above.Ordinarysoldiers,such as theIllyrianZopyrus,whocut off theheadofPyrrhusofEpirus(Plut.Pyrrh.34.5),willalso be excluded.DemetriusI's rule afterthe battleofIpsusincludedMacedon ratherbriefly(from294to288)and was notdirected towards the interests of Macedon
itself.12
Never-theless,theethnicoriginsofDemetrius' friends should beconsideredin thiscontext,tosee how thequestionoforiginrelatestolaterAntigonidpractice.Some of his mostimportantassistants were his ownrelatives.PyrrhusofEpirus,his brother-in-lawandan exile atthe time ofIpsus,falls into thiscategory.HeservedbrieflyasDemetrius'governorof the cities ofthePeloponnese(Plut.Pyrrh.4,cf.Demetr31.2),beforebeingsent asahostagetoPtolemyandpassingout of Demetrius' orbit.Phila,daughterofAntipaterand Demetrius' firstwife,actedashisambassadortoexplainto herbrotherCassander Demetrius'expulsionof anotherbrother,Pleistarchus,from Cilicia(Plut.Demetr.32.4)His eldestson,AntigonusGonatas,defeated theBoeotiansin292,althoughthecaptureof Thebes waslefttoDemetriushimself(Plut.Demetr.
32.4)."13
Antigonuswas alsoleftinchargeof Greece when
G.Herman,RitualisedFriendshipin theGreekCity (Cambridge,1987),154describesthecomment as'venomous',butcitescontemporary parallelsin n.101. On thedifferentviewpointsofTheopompusandPolybius,seeHerman(n.2),125.
9
C.Habicht,'Dieherrschende Gesellschaftin denhellenistischenMonarchien',Vierteil-jahrschriftfiirSozial undWirschaftGeschichte 45(1958),5;Herman(n. 2),113.InEgypt,localswereunder-representednhonorificpositionsat court: L.Mooren,La hidrarchiedu courptolemaique(Louvain, 1977),207.E.Bikerman,InstitutionsdesSileucides(Paris,1938),48saysthekings appointedwhoevertheywished asfriends,but does not discuss theirethnicorigin.10Herman(n.8),13,cf8and 106."R.A.Billows,AntigonustheOne-eyed Berkeley,1990),265andAppendixThree.
12
C.Wehrli,AntigoneetDemetrios(Geneva,1968),221.
13
See Wehrli(n.12),175.P.Perdrizet,'Inscriptionsd'Acraephiae',BCH 25(1900),70hasthefuneralepitaphof aBoeotian leader killed in thisbattle.
 
512J. L.O'NEIL
Demetriusbecamekingof Macedonin294(Plut.Demetr44.4)and wasincontrolofDemetrius' Greekpossessionswhen his fatherhadbeencapturedbySeleucus(Plut.Demetr.51.1-2).Demetriusleftacertain DiodorusinchargeofEphesusafterIpsus.ThisDiodorushad beenin Demetrius' serviceduringthe Greekcampaignof
304-301.14
However,Diodorus decidedtobetrayDemetrius,but thekinglearnt ofthis,anddisguisinghimselfon theshipof oneNicanor,returnedtoEphesusandpreventeditsbetrayal(Polyaenus4.7.4).Neither man is ascribed to an ethnicorigin,butTataki concludesthatDiodorus wasa
Macedonian,15
asshe does forNicanor,which isacommonMacedonianname,thoughnotexclusively
so.16
Therefore Nicanor should alsobeidentified asaMacedonian.PhiloclesofSidonprobablycontinued asDemetrius'admiralintheyearsafterIpsus, althoughheis notdirectlyattestedinthisperiod.17HieronymusofCardia,better knownas ahistorian,wasappointed governorof Boeotiainthe290s.'8Thebestof Demetrius'generals,Pantauchus,wasgivenanindependentcommandinAetoliaduringthe waragainst Pyrrhus,but was defeatedandkilledinsinglecombatbyhim(Plut.Pyrrh.7.4-9,cf. Demetr.41).His service forakingofMacedon andthefactthathis name is a common Macedonianoneandthat latermembers of hisfamilyseem tobeknown,make astrongcase for PantauchusbeingaMacedonian.19Oxythemiswas sent as ambassador toAgathoclesinSyracuse (Diod.21.15 and16).He istwicementioned as animportantfriendofDemetriusbyAthenaeus(6.253Aand14.614F),bothtimes with twoother,otherwise unknownfriends.20Oxythemishimselfis shownby inscriptionalevidence to havebeen aThessalianfromLarissa
(Syll.3343).21
Andragathus betrayedAmphipolistoLysimachus,but himself fellvictim toLysimachus' treachery (Polyaenus4.12.2). Andragathusmust have been Demetrius'governororgeneralatAmphipolisbefore thebetrayal,whichprobablycame afterDemetrius' causewaslost.22When Demetrius wastrapped bySeleucus'army,acertainhetairosofhis,Sosigenesbyname,tried toorganizetheking's escape,but wasunsuccessful(Plut.Demetr.49.7).Wehave noindicationof hisnationality23and theuseof the termhetairos,normalforAlexander,rather thanphilos,normallyusedinthe caseof thesuccessors24andusedbyPlutarchinthispassageforother,unnamedfriends),isunexplained.
14
Billows(n. 11),380,no.30.
15
Tataki(n.5),299.Tatakiargues(25,354,362,439)that men inMacedonianservice,whoseethnicidentityisunknown,are to be identified as Macedonians.
16
Tataki(n. 5),380-4 liststwenty-eightNicanors,incontrast with fifteeninJ.Kirchner,ProsopographicaAttica.OnthenameNicanor,see also A. B. Bosworth'AnewMacedonianprince', CQ44(1994),59. This Nicanor isTataki no.3,onp.380.Cf. P.Schoch,'Nikanor(14)',RE 18(1936),270."7JSeibert'Philokles,SohndesApollodorus,KonigderSidonier',Historia 19(1970),337-51.For the use of a Greek namebyanon-Greek,see Billows(n. 11),306,n. 32.
18
Plut.Demetr.9.4;cf.Paus.1.9.8;WW.TarnAntigonusGonatasOxford, 913),245.
19
Tataki(n.5),398.Cf.Tarn(n. 18),50.
20
Bourichosnd Ademanus t253a;Peucestas nd Menalausat614f.Tatakin.5)doesnotlist the firstpair,butcallsthesecondpairMacedonians t 406 and 368respectively.
21
See Billows(n. 11),414.Oxythemiswas killedby AntigonusGonatasafterinsultinghe
motherofhissonHalcyoneus:Ath. 13.578a.
22
Lund(n. 5),100.AndragathusisnotlistedbyTataki(n. 5).
23
Sosigenesisnot listedinTataki(n.5).
24
Seen. 10 above.

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