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Fluid Mechanics_Impact of Jet Vanes_experiment

# Fluid Mechanics_Impact of Jet Vanes_experiment

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Fluid Mechanics_Experiment_IIT Gandhinagar_Ravi Agarwal_Impact of jet on horizontal and hemi spherical vanes
Fluid Mechanics_Experiment_IIT Gandhinagar_Ravi Agarwal_Impact of jet on horizontal and hemi spherical vanes

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12/12/2012

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Ravi Agarwal09003017Impact Of Jet VanesAim
:- The aim of this experiment is to demonstrate the impulse
momentum theorem as it applies to theimpact of a water jet on vanes with different geometrical shapes. This impulse_Momentum theorem is the underlying physics behind the operation of the pelton wheel.
Theory
:- The jet of water is directed to hit the vanes of a particular shape a force is exerted on the vane by the jet.The amount of force depends on the diameter of the jet shape and the fluid flow rate it also depends on whether thevane is moving or stationary. In this experiment we are concerned about the stationary vane. The force on vane isgiven by the following formulas:Flat Plate: F
t

= ρ a v
2
Hemi Spherical: F
t

=2 ρ a v
2
Where a = area of jet in m
2

ρ = density of water = 1000 kg/ m
3
v = velocity of jet in m/sF
t
= Force acting parallel to the direction of jet
Impulse-Momentum theorem
: The force exerted by the jet on the flat plate (Hemispherical vane) in the directionof jet must be equal to the rate of change of momentum of the jet flow in the same direction.
Apparatus
:
T
he experimental setup primarily consists of an arcylic nozzle through which a water jet emerges vertically in such a way that it may be conveniently observed through a stainless steel enclosure with glass viewports ontwo sides for visibility. The water jet strikes the target vane positioned above it. The force applied on the vane by thejet can be measured by applying weights to counteract as a reaction force for the impact of jet. Interchangeable arcylic circular flat plate and a hemispherical cup are provided for the study. Arrangement is made for the movement of the plate and cup under the action of the jet and due to the weight placed on the loading pan. A scale is provided forreturning the plate and the cup to their original position i.e. the position before the jet struck the body. A water pumpis operated for circulating water to the whole assembly. The water is stored in a tank kept on the ground.

Procedure
:-1.

Sump tank is cleaned and filled with water. (ensure water to be free from foreign bodies)2.

Drain valves are closed and desired vane is placed.3.

Main power supply is switched on..4.

Pump is switched on and flow rate is set such that the vane is stationary.5.

Flow rate is measured using the measuring tank and stop watch.6.

Flow rate is set again by placing different combination of weights. Flow rate is also measured.7.

Vane is changed and experiment is repeated.9.

Pump and main supply of power are switched off when experiment is completed.10.

Water is drained from all tanks.
Observations and Calculations
:-

Data used and recorded
:
Density of water ρ = 1000 kg/ m
3
Diameter of nozzle d = 0.010 mArea of cross section of nozzle A=
Π
d
2
/ 4 = 7.85 X 10-5 m
2
Area of measuring tank = 0.1 m
2
Weight of Aluminum disc + rod = 14.5 gm.Weight of Flat plate disc = 89.5 gm.Weight of hemispherical vane = 97.5 gm.

Sample calculation for Flat plate vane with 98.5 gm weight
:Given area of measuring tank = 0.25 x .40 m
2
= 0.1 m
2
Time = 10 secHeight rise in measuring tank = 6.8 cm = 0.068 mNow, Volume flow rate = Volume / timeVolume of fluid = Area x height= 0.1 x 0.068 m
3
= 0.0068 m
3
So volume flow rate = 0.0068 m
3
/ 10 sec = 0.00068 m
3
/ secNozzle velocity=0.00068/7.85*10^-5= 8.66m/sImpact velocity= (nozzle velocity
2
-2*9.8*41.5)
(1/2)
= 8.18 m/sForce=
ϑ
av
2impact
= 5.56 N
Applying Newton’s second law in the direction of incident jet
Force = Mass x Acceleration. = Mass flow rate x Change in velocity per second

In vertical directionF =
xv =
x (
VcosƟ –
V) =
V (1-
cosƟ)
where
=
ϑ
AVF=
ϑ
AV
2
(1-
cosƟ)For flat vane, Ɵ = 0 and for
hemis
pherical cup Ɵ = 180.

Constant weights: total = 104 gm for Flat plate and 112 gm for hemispherical vaneSample weights used = 98.5, 192, 481, 286 gm.Flat Plate VaneSr..No Weightexternal(gm)Totalweight(gm)ExperimentalForce (N)Heightof tank (cm)Q(Volumeflow rate)(m
3
/s)NozzleVelocity(m/s)Heightrisen(cm)ImpactVelocity(m/s)TheoreticalForce (N)
1384.5

488.5
4.798

0.0008 10.19
36.5 9.83 7.872 286

390
3.82 7.9

0.00079 10.06 35 9.72 7.683 192

296
2.90 7.8

0.00078 9.94 40 9.53 7.444 98.5

202.5
1.98 6.8

0.00068 8.66 41.5 8.18 5.56
Hemispherical vaneSr..No Weightexternal(gm)Totalweight(gm)ExperimentalForce (N)Heightof tank (cm)Q(Volumeflow rate)(m
3
/s)NozzleVelocity(m/s)Heightrisen(cm)ImpactVelocity(m/s)TheoreticalForce (N)
1 98.5
202.5
2.06 5.5 0.00055 7.01 31.7

6.55 7.22 192
296
2.98 6 0.0006 7.64 39.5

7.12 8.543 286
390
3.90 6.6 0.00066 8.41 35.4

7.98 10.544 384.5
488.5
4.87 6.7 0.00067 8.54 33.3

8.14 10.92