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المقارنة المرجعية الاستراتيجية

المقارنة المرجعية الاستراتيجية

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Published by: eythar on Sep 15, 2011
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04/12/2013

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................................... /
2005
 
--
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺗاﺮﺘﺳﻻا
 
ﺔﻴﻌﺟﺮﻤﻟا
 
ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻤﻟا
 
تﺎﻴﻧوﺮﺘﻜﻟﻷا
 
ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺻ
 
ةرﻮﺘآﺪﻟا
 
) (  : :  )
(Ericsson
 . 
ﻻوأ
:"
ﺔﻴﻌﺟﺮﻤﻟا
 
ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻤﻟا
-
Benchmarking, BMKG
-
عاﻮﻧﻻا
 
ﻞﺣاﺮﻤﻟا
 
،مﻮﻬﻔﻤﻟا
 : 
1
. : 
)
Benchmarkhng BMKG
( . -
 –Benchmarks
 "
 – 
Reference Points
-
 "" 
(Harrington
&Harrington, 1996: 29)
. 
*
 
/ / / 
. 
 
 
................................... /
2005
 
--
 " "
(Noori &Radford, 1995: 88)
. . )( )( )(  . )( 
 – Best-in-clas-
.
(Wesner et al., 1995: 179)
. " 
*
 
-Stakeholder-
 
(McNair & Liebfried, 1992: 25)
. " "
(Wesner et al.,1995:69)
 
 –What-
 
 –How-
 
 –Why-
 
(Finnigan, 1996:14)
. . . , "
(Hradesky, 1995: 645)
 . . " "
(Harrington & Harrington, 1996: 15)
 " "
(Druker, 1999: 59)
 
: ..: . "
 –Emulating the Best of the Best-
"
(Hradesky, 1995:645)
." 
(Payne, 1995: 223) –Striving to Be Best
of 
*
 "
 –Stock holders-
 ."
(Lubatkin & Chatterjee, 1994: 111)
. 
 
 
................................... /
2005
 
--
the
Best
-
*
 ." "  )" (" " )"  ( . :  .
 
. .
 
. . .  . 
(Russel & Taylor, 1995: 215)
 . . . -
 –Xerox
 -
Xerox
- "  "
(Ross, 1995: 236)
. 
. :
(Harrington & Harrington, 1996: 5)
. 
*
 .
(Bharaddwaj et al., 1993: 83; Payne, 1995: 7; Sirgy, 1996:256)
 . " )( )( )()(")().(
(Kotler, 1997: 430)
. 

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