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المقارنة المرجعية الاستراتيجية 1

المقارنة المرجعية الاستراتيجية 1

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04/14/2012

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داو ةرادا  ............................... / ناو عاا دا
2005
 
- 87 -
يف تحاخسا تا تنرقاثنوخا تص 
ةرىخكا
يدها بع رثاحف
*
 
ا
 سأ جا را    ــ ثـــ  ادــ ـــا ىا يدـــ ــ ـ 
 خا وا أ(خاد ظا ءاد ة ظ ر )جرخ واط ؟ا ن ف : او ؟ ا نوخا حصأ ف : لوا سسأ اس  جا كذورا ضاسا  ء ـجا   حا ق ـشا ، ــا ـ   عرا تاا  ، جا را بسأ ماسا عو نود ظا  ر   و هااو بسا اذ اساو ـؤا ـ  ى زا  ـ ت  هجاو ا    تاش تاذ تاغ ج ىا و سسأ تاغ   ، جراص تـخا و ، ـا ـا  ـاسا ءادا تاـش ا شو طا   وا تا ش  ا ثا(
(Ericsson
 . تصو تجسا  ثا خاو ، ا را   
تا تنرقا :"وأ-
Benchmarking, BMKG
-،مىها:عاىنا لاا
1
:  مو .
ػػرصػ ػرصطػػصؽػػأ (
Benchmarkhng BMKG
)صػػ.صـػػصفػػ ذ صػصتػصفػ.صتػصذػصفو.صـد. -
 – 
Benchmarks
صػرصمػطصدػ 
 – 
 
*
 
لا ةرادا  /  ذسا// داو ةرادا  ا ا
.
 
 
داو ةرادا  ............................... / ناو عاا دا
2005
 
- 88 -
Reference Points
-
م.صةددصوص،طػصػصمدػ.صـو ّ 
ػ ىر 
(Harrington
&Harrington, 1996: 29)
صًد.صءصـووصسصرصطصوصسمصصصد مػ
(Noori &Radford, 1995: 88)
ؽرػ.صدػصؿػصءدصىو.ص،ؿصتدصصصوص(صػػػظصجوػػػصروػػػط 
23
(صػػػػصػػػ.صًرػػػص)
9
(صةدػػػصودػػػص،ػػػ.صؿػػػصرػػػص)
9
رػػػص)صػػػ.صرػػصىرػػػصػػظصءدصىوػػ ػ.صفوػػػصفػػصػػػصػػ.صػػػرصػػجوػػػصتذ (صروػػطصةدػػصؽرػػ.صػػ 
8
ؿػػصػػرصتذصػػرصػػصوػػص،رػػص)
 – 
Best-in-clas-
(Wesner et al., 1995: 179)
ءدصسػػمصػػصػػرصػػرصؼرػػصػػصػػػصتػػػوصػػػصؽوػػػوصػػػصػػػوصػػػو 
*
ص
-Stakeholder-
صصصصصصص
(McNair &Liebfried, 1992: 25)
تػػ.رصـػػصػػمصػػوص،فرػ ػهصفػػصػ ػرصـػػصؽػ ػرطصفػػص م.صروص.صتظصصةددصت 
(Wesner et al.,1995:69)
دػصؿصفو صذػصـػصىرػصصً.صظصـوصفصصص،ؿصت.رصؾ 
 – 
What-
،ؿػ صؼػػو 
 – 
How-
ذػػوص،ؿػػ 
 – 
Why-
ءػػصذػػصؿػػ 
(Finnigan, 1996: 14)
فصػػصصذػػصػصػظصؼورػظصػػوطصؿػصػ..صػصصىرػ ػصتػظصتػ.رصـػ صذوصرصرصفزصءصؿوص.صتظصروطصفصىرصصفوص،صف صـرصةوصر. ؼد.صؿص،ب.وصفرصروطصوصدصؼوصصصذص،ف. صثػصػرصػرصػصاػنرصذػصػووصؿػصـورػصػ.صةرػظصؽػرطصفصؽوصمػػ ػصةدػػػصتػػػوصتػػػ.روصرػػػصفػػػصدػػػدصفرػػ ػ.صؽػػػطو 
(Hradesky,1995: 645)
دػػو ؿػػصتػػ.رصفوػػصدػػصذصًػػصػػ.صرػػصىرػػصتػػصػػصةصرصرصـوص.وصذوص.صرصتصصرصدروصوصزوصظو صؿػػػصػػػصػػػزوصػػػظصةرػػػ.صػػػرمصفػػػصةرػػػصودػػػوص،ةدػػػوصػػػصدودػػػصجرػػػ رػظصؼرػصتػظمدػصوصػصفػ
(Harrington & Harrington, 1996: 15)
صمػػرصوصػػصػػصؿػػصءدصػػصػػظصءدأصػػرمصيأ 
(Druker, 1999: 59)
صفػػصؾػػذوص،ػػدصتػػ.صػػصدوػػصػػرصةرػػظصرػػصػػصرػػصػػ.وصػػأصرػػ أصفنػػ.صفػصػػصػوصؽػرط ،فػ.. 
:و.فف .نوف فف ف فك :ففو ففك  فف فف ةف ور ةففـ ف يفذ نف دفو .ف نوك 
 – 
Emulating the Best of the Best-
ـ
(Hradesky, 1995: 645)
ف ف نوفك ن فـ ف .
(Payne,
*
صفوػػ.مصفػػصؿػػصفوػػصؿػػوص،ػػرصـأصػػدصفػػصءوػػ.صػػظصحػػصفػػصػػصػػصفػػ 
 – 
Stock holders-
،فػػزصمـروصفوزص،فورص،فوردص،فو
(Lubatkin & Chatterjee, 1994: 111)
 
 
داو ةرادا  ............................... / ناو عاا دا
2005
 
- 89 -
1995: 223)
 – 
Striving to Be Best
of the
Best
-
تفو ف 
*
تف ف ففف ففف ففف ففف ـفففر .ففف ور ةدفففأو ففف فففد يفففذ ففف ور تففففف فف فف ـفف ور ففاـد فف (ف دفف فف ففك نفف ثففأ ـوففر فد  ءد ة  ور ف سف     ت اـ ور ـ دوف ف ف ف فو فو ف ور   ددأ ى ت  ةدفف (فف نفف فف .ةفف نففأ فف فف نوففز فف زوفف ففأ وفف ءد: ن ك ر  ..تقو  نوز  و ن و ءد تو  ة   ب ..سق  .ن (  ن    و ددأ .ف  ًف س ت ن  ور  د و  د   نوك دق .ء   ن ك 
(Russel & Taylor, 1995: 215)
ءد ف و كو . و  و ةددأ فك ف جوف (ف ف  مو  ت ن ك ت نو  دقو دف ن فق  د ن تو ءدو  مفد ف فر ىف تف ف ف ف ف ف ف    ( ةدأو  دودأ ج و م نو .جوف ف ف نف ف فو يفذ ف و ف ف و ندو  و نزك  تر  ذو .-
 – 
Xerox
ةزبوف ذف مد و  ةد خففف نفف ف نفف ف نكففف سففف بففف كفف سففف بففف شفف ف ن دففف ففف كففف ذفف  ك  ك ىو د مو -
Xerox
-يف مفو ف ءزر ًف نف ـ  ـفف ةفف 
(Ross, 1995: 236)
ففقو .ففأ دففأ بوفف ذفف كفف مدفف ففقو د قو
.ففف بوفف مدفف فف فف فف فف فف فف فف ن فف نففو : تو ع  
(Harrington & Harrington, 1996: 5)
. 
ص
 
*
 .فد ور فد ف (ف جوف ف ف 
(Bharaddwaj et al., 1993: 83; Payne, 1995: 7; Sirgy, 1996:256)
ور ماففد ور بكاففد فف ـفف ففو ففأ فف مدفف ءفف ر وفف فف فف .فف ور ةففك ور ور ـ أاقو ور  اش . اةك ور  زكا 
(Kotler, 1997: 430)
.

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