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0.1 Conditions for using this book
0.2 Structure of the book
0.3 A guide
0.4.1 The first line
0.4.2 The second line
0.4.3 The third line
0.4.4 Using the palettes
0.4.5 All in one line
0.5 For the beginner
0.6.1 Aims of this book
0.6.2 Summary
0.6.4 A logic of exceptions
0.6.5 A textbook with news
0.6.6 Empirical base
0.6.7 How to proceed
1.1 Learning by doing
1.2.1 Language
1.2.2 Symbols
1.2.3 Switch model
1.2.4 Truthtable
1.2.5 Calculation
1.3.1 Language
1.3.2 Symbols
1.3.3 Switch model
1.3.4 Truthtable
1.3.5 Calculation
1.4.1 Language
1.4.2 Symbols
1.4.3 Switch model
1.4.4 Truthtable
1.4.5 Calculation
1.5.1 Language
1.5.2 Symbols
1.5.3 Switch model
1.5.4 Truthtable
1.5.5 Calculation
1.6.1 Language
1.6.2 Symbols
1.6.3 Switch model
1.6.4 Truthtable
1.6.5 Calculation
1.7.1 Language
1.7.2 Symbols
1.7.3 Switch model
1.7.4 Truthtable
1.7.5 Calculation
1.8.1 Language
1.8.2 Symbols
1.8.3 Switch model
1.8.4 Truthtable
1.8.5 Calculation
1.10 Testing statements
1.11 A summary of what logic is
1.12 You can directly use a main result
1.13 Paradoxes, antinomies and vicious circles
1.14 A note on this introduction
2.1.1 A prerequisite on notation
2.1.2 Logic and the methodology of science
2.1.3 Mathematica - also as a decision support environment
2.1.4 Use of The Economics Pack - Relation of logic to economics
2.2.1 This book has been written in Mathematica
2.2.2 Notation
2.2.3 Input and evaluation
2.2.4 Full form and display
2.2.5 Logical routines
2.2.6 Getting used to Mathematica
2.3.1 Aims of this book
2.3.2 The subject of logic
2.3.3.1 Four combinations
2.3.3.2 Static statements
2.3.3.3 Statics with predicates
2.3.3.4 Dynamics with statements
2.3.3.5 Dynamics with predicates
2.3.3.6 Summing up
2.3.4 Propositions (two-valued logic) and sentences (three-valued logic)
2.3.5 Truth
2.3.6 Sense and meaning
2.3.7 Symbolics and formalism
2.3.8 Syntax, semantics and pragmatics
2.3.9 Axiomatics and other ways of proof
2.3.10 Outline conclusions
3.1 Introduction
3.2.1 Constants and variables
3.2.2 Englogish
3.2.3 Atomic sentences
3.3.1 Definition
3.3.2 Truthtables and truth value
3.4.2 Algebraic structure
3.4.3 Disjunctive normal form
3.4.4 Enhancement of And and Or
3.5.1 Definition
3.5.2 Agreement and disagreement
3.5.3.1 Introduction
3.5.3.2 Agreement
3.5.3.3 An algebraic manner
3.5.3.4 LogicalExpand
3.6.1 The system
3.6.2 A system for
3.6.3 Information and inference
3.6.4 Axiomatics versus deduction in general
4.1.1 Reasoning and the inner structure of statements
4.1.2 Order of the discussion
4.2.1 Notation of set theory
4.2.2 Predicate calculus and set theory
4.2.3 Universal and existential quantifiers
4.2.4.1 Sets and quantifiers
4.2.4.2 Laws of substitution
4.2.5 Review of all notations
4.3 Axiomatic developments
4.4.1 Notations
4.4.2 Quantifiers
4.4.3 Propositional form
4.4.4 Element and NotElement in Mathematica
4.5.1 The theorem and its proof
4.5.2.1 Introduction
4.5.2.2 Antiquity
4.5.2.3 Middle Ages and Renaissance
4.5.2.5 Summing up
4.6.1 The concept of exception
4.6.2 The liar
4.6.3 Selfreference in set theory
4.6.4 Still requiring three-valuedness
4.6.5 Exceptions in computers
5.1.1 Introduction
5.1.2 Validity
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Mathematical induction or recursion
5.2.3 Empirical induction
5.2.4 Definition & Reality methodology
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 The four basic figures
5.3.3 Application
5.3.4.1 Progress since Chapter 2
5.3.4.2 Critique from epistemology
5.4.1 Proof and being decided
5.4.2 Provable and decidable
5.4.3 Consistency
5.4.4 Decidability and consistency
5.4.5.1 Relation of a system to the world
5.4.5.2 Truth and provability
5.4.5.3 Semantical correctness or truthfulness
5.4.5.4 Deductive completeness
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 Pattern recognition
5.5.3 Infer
5.5.4 Axioms and metarules
5.5.5 InferenceMachine
5.5.6 The axiomatic method and EFSQ
5.5.7 Expansion subroutines
5.5.8 Different forms
5.5.9 Accounting
5.6 A note on inference
6.2.3 Using SetDeontic
6.2.4 Objects and Q’s with the same structure
6.2.5 Universe
6.2.6 The difference between Is and Ought
6.4.3 Logic laboratory and inference
7.1 Introduction
7.2.1 Definition
7.2.2 Singulary operators
7.2.3 Binary operators: And and Or
7.2.4 Implies
7.2.5 Equivalent
7.2.6 TruthValue
7.3.1 Basic observations
7.3.2 Some conventions remain
7.3.3 Some conventions disappear - and new ones appear
7.3.4 Linguistic traps
7.3.5 Transformations
7.4 Interpretation
7.6 Turning it off
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Mathematics versus logic
8.4 Unreliability of logical principles
8.5 Concluding
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Rejection
9.3.1 In general
9.3.2 Ever bigger systems ?
9.3.3 A proper context for questions on consistency
9.3.4 Axiomatic method & empirical claim
9.3.5 A logic of exceptions
9.3.6 The real problem may be psychology
9.3.7 Interpretation versus the real thing
9.3.8 Interesting fallacies
9.3.9 Smorynski 1977
9.3.10 DeLong 1971
9.3.11 Quine 1976
9.3.12 Intuitionism
9.3.13 Finsler
9.3.14 A plea for a scientific attitude
10.1 Introduction
10.2 General points
10.3 Liar
10.4 Predicates and set theory
10.5 Intuitionism
10.6 Proof theory and the Gödeliar
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Prerequisites in mathematics
11.3 Logical paradoxes in voting theory
11.4.1 Introduction
11.4.2 Cantor’s theorem and his proof
11.4.3 Rejection of this proof
11.5 Paradoxes by division by zero
11.6 Non-standard analysis
11.7.1 Gödel-Rosser
11.7.2 Proof-consequentness
11.7.3.1 For page 212
11.7.3.2 For page 218
11.7.4 Philosophy of science
11.8 Scientific attitude revisited
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A Logic of Exceptions Thomas Cool Book

# A Logic of Exceptions Thomas Cool Book

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12/12/2012

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