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Modul PLPG Bahasa Inggris

Modul PLPG Bahasa Inggris

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Published by: adhyatnika geusan ulun on Sep 16, 2011
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26
Pendidikan & Latihan Profesi Guru Rayon 24 Universitas Negeri Makassar 
Satu Untuk UNM
INTRODUCTION
This module
 
is focused on the details teaching any one or a combination of the fourskills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. It is crucial to recognize that by; attendingto the four skills in four separate chapters we are riot advocating the teaching of skills inseparate classes or even lessons. We rather quickly discovered that in most contexts of human communication we do
not 
separate those skills. We also discovered that theactivation of one skill (listening, for example) can be readily reinforced by the use of anotherskill (speaking, reading, and / or writing).So, the first chapter that emphasizes the importance of the integration of skills, lestyou be misled into thinking that the subsequent four chapters are an argument forseparation. We have chosen to illustrate the concept of integration by examining a numberof approaches to language teaching that model integration. Chapter 1 describes as wellsome of those well-known approaches, all of which celebrate the integration of at least two,if not all four, skills.Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 systematically analyze the unique factors and guidelinesinvolved in teaching each of the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing,respectively. A somewhat uniform outline is followed for each chapter so that you can easilycompare characteristics of each skill.Chapter 6 examines the teaching or grammar and vocabulary. Because all four skillsinherently involve structure (grammar) and lexical items (vocabulary), this is a separatechapter devoted specifically to issues, problems, and guidelines for helping students to focuson form (the organizational components of language). Those issues and guidelines apply, of course, to whatever specific skill, or combination of skills, students are performing at a giventime. Most of the materials are largely adopted from the book written by Douglas H. Brown
entitled: ―Teaching by Principles‖ published in 2008.
 
 
 
27
Pendidikan & Latihan Profesi Guru Rayon 24 Universitas Negeri Makassar 
Satu Untuk UNM
CHAPTER IINTEGRATING THE FOUR LANGUAGE SKILLSOBJECTIVES
 After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
 
 
appreciate the importance of integrating skills for more authenticity and betterreinforcement
 
analyze a lesson from the point of view of its integration of skills
 
understand the characteristics of several different approaches that illustrate theintegration of skills
 
apply concepts of skills integration to the next four chapters, which deal with theseparate skillsFor more than six decades now, research and practice in English language teaching hasidentified the "four skills"
 —
listening, speaking, reading, and writing
 –
as of paramountimportance. ESL curricula and textbooks around the world tend to focus, all too often, on just one of the four skills , sometimes to the exclusion of the others. Books, articles,anthologies, research surveys, and conferences typically index or organize their contentsaccording to each of the four skills.It is perfectly appropriate to thus identify language performance. The human racehas fashioned two forms of productive performance, oral and written, and two forms of receptive performance, aural (or auditory) and reading. There are, of course, offshoots of each mode. Lumped together under nonverbal communication are various visually perceivedmessages delivered through gestures, facial expressions, proximity, and so forth. Graphic art(drawings, paintings, and diagrams) is also a powerful form of communication. But attentionto the four different skills does indeed pay off as learners of a second language discover thedifferences and interrelationships among these four primary modes of performance.Despite our history of treating the four skills in separate segments, of a curriculum,there is a recent trend toward skill
(integration).
That I, rather than designing a curriculumto teach the many aspects of one skill, say, reading, curriculum designers are taking more of a
whole language
approach whereby reading is treated as one of two or more interrelatedskills. A course that deals "with reading skills, then, will more often than not also deal withrelated listening, speaking, and writing skills. A lesson in a so-called reading class, under thisnew paradigm, might include
 
a prereading
discussion 
of the topic to activate schemata;
 
 
28
Pendidikan & Latihan Profesi Guru Rayon 24 Universitas Negeri Makassar 
Satu Untuk UNM
 
listening 
to a teacher's monologue or a series of informative statements about thetopic of a passage to be read;
 
a focus on a certain
reading 
strategy, say, scanning;
 
writing 
a response to or paraphrase of a reading passage.This reading class, then, models for the students the real-life integration of language skills,gets them to perceive the relationship among several skills, provides the teacher with a greatdeal of flexibility in creating interesting, motivating lessons.
 A.
 
WHY INTEGRATED SKILLS?
 Some may argue that the integration of the four skills diminishes the importance of the rules of listening, speaking, reading, and writing that are unique to each separate skill.Such an argument rarely holds up under careful scrutiny of integrated-skills courses. If anything, the added richness of the latter gives students greater motivation that converts tobetter retention of principles of effective speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Ratherthan being forced to plod along through a course that limits itself to one mode of performance, students are given a chance to diversify their efforts in more meaningful tasks.Such integration can, of course, still utilize a strong, principled approach to the separate,unique characteristics of each skill.So you may be wondering why courses weren't always integrated in the first place.There are several reasons:1.
 
In the pre-Communicative Language Teaching (CUT) days of languageteaching, the focus on the
forms
of language almost predisposed curriculum designersto segment courses into the separate language skills. It seemed logical to fashion asyllabus that dealt with, say, pronunciation of the phonemes of English, stress andintonation, oral structural patterns (carefully sequenced according to presumedgrammatical difficulty), and variations on those patterns. These language-based classestended to be courses in "baby linguistics" where a preoccupation with rules andparadigms taught students a lot
about 
language but sometimes at the expense of teaching language itself.2.
 
 Administrative considerations still make it easier to program separate courses in readingand speaking, and so on, as a glance at current intensive and university English coursesreveals. Such divisions can indeed be justified when one considers the practicalities of coordinating three-hour-per-week courses, hiring teachers for each, ordering textbooks,and placing students into the courses. It should be noted, however, that a proficient

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