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Mentzos M Etal_2005_CFD Predictions of Flow Through a Centrifugal Pump Impeller

Mentzos M Etal_2005_CFD Predictions of Flow Through a Centrifugal Pump Impeller

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Published by Andronikos Filios
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Published by: Andronikos Filios on Oct 13, 2008
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05/09/2014

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1
st
International Conference on Experiments/Process/System Modelling/Simulation/Optimization1
st
IC-EpsMsOAthens, 6-9 July, 2005© IC-EpsMsO
CFD PREDICTIONS OF FLOW THROUGH A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IMPELLER 
Michalis D. Mentzos
 
1
, Andronicos E. Filios A.E.
*
, Dionisios P. Margaris
1
and Dimitrios G. Papanikas
1
1Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics DepartmentUniversity of PatrasGR-26500 Patras, Greecee-mail:
 
margaris@mech.upatras.gr 
*
 
Fluid Mechanics & Turbomachines Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department,School of Pedagogical and Technological Education,GR-141 21 Athens, Greecee-mail: afilios@aspete.gr 
Keywords:
 
Centrifugal pump, Impeller, Computational Fluid Dynamics.
 
Abstract.
 
With the aid of computational fluid dynamics, the complex internal flows in water pump impellers canbe well predicted, thus facilitating the design of pumps. This paper describes the simulation of the flow into theimpeller of an experimental centrifugal pump. The commercial three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code Fluent,with a standard k-
ε
two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the problem under examination. In thecalculation, the finite-volume method along with a structured grid system is used for the solution procedure of the discretized governing equations for this problem. The calculation predicts the flow pattern and the pressuredistribution in the untwisted blade passages and finally the overall performances and the head-capacity curveare discussed.
1
 
INTRODUCTION
Pump designers are continually challenged to provide machines that operate more efficiently, quietly, andreliably at lower cost. Key to design a hydraulic turbomachine is a detailed understanding of the internal flowwithin its stationary and rotating passages and therefore the calculability of its performance during design andoff-design conditions. With the aid of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach, the complex internalflows in water pump centrifugal impellers, which are not fully understood yet, can be well predicted andtherefore establishing the CFD as a key tool for pump designers. The use of CFD tools in turbomachineryindustry is quite common today since many tasks can numerically be solved much faster and cheaper than bymeans of experiments. Commercial software Fluent
®
, CFX-Tascflow
®
, StarCD
®
 
and Fine/Turbo
®
, isincreasingly using to study pump design and off-design performance.Various researchers have considerably contributed in revealing the flow mechanisms inside centrifugalimpellers aiming to the design of high performance centrifugal turbomachines. The reported works by Eckard
[1]
,Johnson and Moore
[2]
, Kjork and Lofdahl
[3]
, Denton
[4]
, Dawes
[5]
, Casey et al
[6]
, Bansod and Rhie
[7]
, Krain andHoffman
[8]
, Farge and Johnson
[9]
and Zhang et al
[10]
are an indicative collection of research efforts on thecomputation and the experimental verification of the flowfields within centrifugal impellers.On the numerical simulation of the flowfield of a centrifugal impeller, several algorithms have been proposed and developed, but there is still no approach that is fully robust regarding the numerical and modelingaccuracy as well as efficiency. Pressure-based methods initially developed for the incompressible flow regime,obtain the pressure field via a pressure or a pressure correction equation which is formulated by manipulatingthe continuity and momentum equations. The solution procedure is conventionally sequential in nature, andhence can more easily accommodate a varying number of equations depending on the physics of the probleminvolved, without the necessity of reformulating the entire algorithm. Lakshminarayana
[11]
, Rodi et al
[12]
, Thakur et al
[13]
, provides a review of the techniques that are useful as an assessment of the state of the art.The present paper summarizes the under progress research work on the prediction of the flowfield within anexperimental centrifugal pump as well as its performance curves. Towards to study the design and off-design performance of the pump, flow and pressure fields are analysed numerically and experimentally for reasons of direct comparison. The experimental pump has a shrouded impeller of constant width rotating inside acylindrical casing. The impeller have nine untwisted blades backward facing with a circular arc camber line andits cad model along with the main geometry characteristics are shown in figure 1. In the lack of completing theexperimental study, only the computational study of the flow through the impeller with the use of commercial
 
Michalis D. Mentzos, Andronicos E. Filios A.E., Dionisios P. Margaris and Dimitrios G. Papanikas
software Fluent
®
 
is discussed. The software package Fluent
®
 
can predict laminar flow, turbulent flow, and heattransfer. It has been widely used in the field of turbomachinery, and the simulation results have been proven bySun and Tsukamoto
[14]
and Gonzalez et al.
[15]
to be reliable. Fluent
®
overcomes the meshing difficulties thatarise in complex geometry by using a powerful CAD-based preprocessor, Gambit
®
. The authors
[16]
have alreadyused Fluent
®
to study three-dimensional turbulent flow through a commercial water-pump during design andoff-design conditions.The flow and pressure field through the impeller results from the solution of the fully three-dimensionalincompressible Navier-Stokes equations, including the centrifugal force source. Turbulence is simulated with thestandard RNG k-
ε
model. Although grid size is not adequate to investigate local boundary layer variables, globalones are well captured. For such calculations, wall functions, based on the logarithmic law, are used. The pressure-velocity coupling is calculated through the SIMPLE algorithm. Second order, upwind discretizations isused for convection terms and central difference schemes for diffusion term.
Figure 1: CAD-model of the centrifugal impeller under study.Denomination ValueImpeller diameters D
1
= 62 mm, D
2
= 190 mmBlade angles
β
1
= 26
o
,
β
2
= 49
o
 Impeller widths b
1
= 9 mm, b
2
= 9 mm Number of blades z = 9Blade thickness t = 5 mmBlade curvature radius R= 110 mm
2
 
MATHEMATICAL MODELING2.1
 
Basic Equations
For three-dimensional incompressible, unsteady flow, the continuity and momentum equations can bewritten in the rotating coordinate system as follows:
( )
0
=+
 ρ  ρ 
(1)
( ) ( )
( )( )
eff 
 p
+++=+
µ δ  ρ  ρ 
(2)where vector notation has been used,
is a vector cross product;
is the velocity;
 p
is the pressure;
 ρ
is thedensity;
δ
is the identity matrix;
is the source term and
 µ
eff 
is the effective viscosity coefficient.For flows in a rotating frame of reference at a constant rotational speed
, the Coriolis effect is taking intoaccount, too. In this case, with
the location vector,
( )
[
 Ω Ω
 Ω
]
+=
2
 ρ 
(3)
2.2
 
RNG k-
ε
turbulence model
The RNG-based k-
ε
turbulence model is derived from the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations, using the
 
Michalis D. Mentzos, Andronicos E. Filios A.E., Dionisios P. Margaris and Dimitrios G. Papanikas
“renormalization group” (RNG) technique. The analytical derivation results in a model with constants differentfrom those in the standard k-
ε
model, and additional terms and functions in the transport equations for k and
ε
.The RNG k-
ε
model has a similar form to the standard k-
ε
model
.
The values of 
and
ε
come directly fromthe differential transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate
()()()
i k eff i j
k ku a t x x
ρρµ
+=+
ρε
(4)and
21 2
( ) ( ) ( )
i eff i j
u a C G t x x x k  R
εεε
εεερερεµρ
+=+
ε
(5)where
G
is the production of turbulence kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients;
α
, and
α
ε
are theinverse effective Prandtl numbers for 
and
ε
, respectively;
1
ε
and
2
ε
are constants with
1
ε
=1,42 and
2
ε
=1,68, respectively.The term
G
, representing the production of turbulence kinetic energy, is modeled identically for thestandard, RNG, and realizable k-
ε
models. From the exact equation for the transport of 
, this term may bedefined as
k i
uG u u x 
ρ
(6)The scale elimination procedure in RNG technique results in a differential equation for turbulent viscosity
23
ˆˆ1,72ˆ( 1 )
v
k vv
ρεµ
=+
dv
(7)with
v
 
100 and
µ µ ν 
eff 
ˆ 
=
(7a)In the high - Reynolds numbers limit, equation (7) is integrated to obtain an accurate description of how theeffective turbulent transport varies with the effective Reynolds number (or eddy scale), allowing the model to better handle low-Reynolds-number and near-wall flows
ε  ρ µ 
µ 
2
=
 with
 µ
 
=0,0845, derived using RNG theory. It is interesting to note that this value of 
 µ
is very close to theempirically-determined value of 0,09 used in the standard k-
ε
model.The inverse effective Prandtl numbers for 
and
ε
,
α
and
α
ε
respectively are computed by
eff mol  , ,
 , , , ,
µ µ α α α α 
=++
367900632100
39292392923929139291(8)where
α
0
=1,0. In the high Reynolds number limit (
 µ
mol 
 /µ
eff 
<<1),
 
α
=
α
ε
1,393The main difference between the RNG and standard k-
ε
models lies in the additional term in the
ε
 equation given by
( )
[ ]
 /  R
2303
11
ε  βη η η  ρη 
µ ε 
+=
(9)where
η
≡ 
Sk/ 
ε
,
η
0
=4,38,
 β 
=0,012The effects of 
 R
ε
-term in the RNG
ε
-equation can be seen more clearly by rearranging equation (5).

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