Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Standard view
Full view
of .
×
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
87822_09

# 87822_09

Ratings: 0|Views: 510|Likes:

### Availability:

See More
See less

12/10/2012

pdf

text

original

9.1
SECTION 9
LATERAL-FORCE DESIGN
Charles W. Roeder, P.E.
Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Washington,Seattle, Washington
9.1 DESCRIPTION OF WIND FORCES
The magnitude and distribution of wind velocity are the key elements in determining winddesign forces. Mountainous or highly developed urban areas provide a rough surface, whichslows wind velocity near the surface of the earth and causes wind velocity to increase rapidlywith height above the earth’s surface. Large, level open areas and bodies of water providelittle resistance to the surface wind speed, and wind velocity increases more slowly withheight. Wind velocity increases with height in all cases but does not increase appreciablyabove the critical heights of about 950 ft for open terrain to 1500 ft for rough terrain. Thisvariation of wind speed over height has been modeled as a power law:
n
z
(9.1)
 
2
z
g

9.2
SECTION NINE
where
is the basic wind velocity, or velocity measured at a height
z
g
above ground and
z
is the velocity at height
z
above ground. The coefﬁcient
n
varies with the surface roughness.It generally ranges from 0.33 for open terrain to 0.14 for rough terrain. The wind speeds
z
and
are the fastest-mile wind speeds, which are approximately the fastest average windspeeds maintained over a distance of 1 mile. Basic wind speeds are measured at an elevation
z
g
above the surface of the earth at an open site. Design wind loads are based on a statisticalanalysis of the maximum fastest-mile wind speed expected within a given recurrence interval,such as 50 years. Statistical maps of wind speeds have been developed and are the basis of present design methods. However, the maps consider only regional variations in wind speedand do not consider tornadoes, tropical storms, or local wind currents. The wind speed dataare maintained for open sites and must be corrected for other site conditions. (Wind speedsfor elevations higher than the critical elevations mentioned previously are not affected bysurface conditions.)Wind speeds
w
are translated into pressure
q
by the equation
p
2
q
C
(9.2)
D w
2where
D
is a drag coefﬁcient and
p
is the density of air at standard atmospheric pressure.The drag coefﬁcient
D
depends on the shape of the body or structure and is less than 1 if the wind ﬂows around the body. The pressure
q
is the stagnation pressure
q
s
if
D
1.0,since the structure effectively stops the forward movement of the wind. Thus, on substitutionin Eq. (9.2) of
D
1.0 and air density at standard atmospheric pressure,
2
q
0.00256
(9.3)
s w
where the wind speed is in miles per hour and pressure, in psf.The shape and geometry of the building have other effects on the wind pressure andpressure distribution. Large inward pressures develop on the windward walls of enclosedbuildings and outward pressures develop on leeward walls, as illustrated in Fig. 9.1
a
. Build-ings with openings on the windward side will allow air to ﬂow into the building, and internalpressures may develop as depicted in Fig. 9.1
b
. These internal pressures cause loads on theover-all structure and structural frame. More important, these pressures place great demandson the attachment of rooﬁng and external cladding. Openings in a side wall or leeward wallmay cause an internal pressure in the building as illustrated in Fig. 9.1
c
and
. This buildupof internal pressure depends on the size of the openings for all walls and the geometry of the structure. Slopes of roofs may affect the pressure distribution, as illustrated in Fig. 9.1
e
.Projections and overhangs (Fig. 9.2) may also restrict the airﬂow and accumulate pressure.These effects must be considered in design.The velocity used in the pressure calculation is the velocity of the wind relative to thestructure. Thus, vibrations or movements of the structure occasionally may affect the mag-nitude of the relative velocity and pressure. Structures with vibration characteristics whichcause signiﬁcant changes in the relative velocity and pressure distribution are regarded assensitive to aerodynamic effects. They may be susceptible to dynamic instability due tovortex shedding and ﬂutter. These may occur where local airﬂow around the structure causesdynamic ampliﬁcation of the structural response because of the interaction of the structuralresponse with the airﬂow. These undesirable conditions require special analysis that takesinto account the shape of the body, airﬂow around the body, dynamic characteristics of thestructure, wind speed, and other related factors. As a result, dynamic instability is not in-cluded in the simpliﬁed methods included in this section.The fastest-mile wind speed is smaller than the short-duration wind speed due to gusting.Corrections are made in design calculations for the effect of gusting through use of gustfactors, which increase design wind pressure to account for short-duration increases in windspeed. The gust factors are largely affected by the roughness of the surface of the earth.They decrease with increasing height, reduced surface roughness, and duration of gusting.

9  . 3
FIGURE 9.1
Plan view of a building indicating the wind loading on it with changes in velocity and directionof wind. (
a
) High pressure on a solid wall on the windward side but outward or reduced inward pressure onthe leeward side. (
b
) Wind entering through an opening in the windward wall induces outward pressure on theinterior of the walls. (
c
) and (
) Wind entering through openings in a side wall or a leeward wall produceinternal pressures in the building. (
e
) On a slopng roof, high inward pressure develops on the windward side,outward or reduced inward pressure on the leeward side.

## Activity (4)

### Showing

AllMost RecentReviewsAll NotesLikes