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42 Estudios y Caprich de Kreutzer

42 Estudios y Caprich de Kreutzer

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07/16/2013

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Schirmer'sLibraryofMusicalClassics
~
Vol.
230
RodolpheKreutzer
FORTY-TWOSTUDIES
OR
CAPRICES
FORTHE
VIOLIN
r
EDITEDANDREVISED
BY
EDMUNDSINGER
WITH,.BIOGRAPHICAi.SKETCH
OF
THI!AUTHOR
BY
DR.THI!O.BAKEl
G.SCHIRMER,INC.,NEWYORK
Copyright.1894,byG.Schirmer,Inc.
PrintedIn
the
U.
S.
A.
 
Bom
atVersaillesthe16thofNov.,1766,ofGermanparentage,
RODOLPHEKREUTZER
enjoyedtothefullthead-vantagesofmusicallineageandenvi-ronment.Fromhisfather,aviolinistintheRoyalBand,hereceivedhisfirstlessonsinmusic,andearlymanifestedextraordinarymusicaltalent,withadecidedpredilectionfortheviolin.AntonStamitz,aviolinistofrepute,instructedhiminviolin-playingforatime;helaterlearnedmuchfromhear-ingViotti,andmayhavereceiveddi-rectinstructionfromthelatter.Attwelve,hisplayingwasdistin-guishedbybrilliancyand
'lJe11Je
atthirteen,hecomposedhisfirstviolin-concerto,whichhehimselfperformedwithgreatapplauseatoneofthe
ConcertsSpirituels
inParis.Atthistimehewasofteninvitee'totheTrianon,wherehesangwithtaste
in
the
petitsconcerts
oftheQpeen,besidesenchantingtheselectcompanybyhisperformancesonhisfavoriteinstru-ment.In1782,whenbut16,hebecamefirstviolinistintheroyalorchestra,thankstothegoodofficesofhispro-tectress,MarieAntoinette;takingthepositionthenmadevacantbyhisfather'sdecease.Eightyearsthereafter,hisindomitableperseverancesmoothedthewaytohisap-pointmentassoloviolinistattheTheatreItalien(after-wardstheOperaComique)
j
hispositionandinfluencewerenowsuchastoenablehimtobringouthisfirstopera,
Jeanne
d'
Arc
4
Orleans,
thefirstinaseriesofmorethan40dramaticworksandballetsproducedbe-tween1790and1825,inpartattheabovetheatre,inpart,attheGrandOpera.DuringandaftertheRevolution,Kreutzerseemstohaveadaptedhimselfwithfacilitytohischangingsurroundings
j
thereisnonoticeablebreakinhisproductivityandhisgeneralartisticsuccess.Hewrotewithapparentlyequalnonchalancetheoperasdesignedtodelighttheunfortu-nateroyalfamily,thosecelebratingtheeventsofthebloodysocialupheaval,andhisdramasoftheConsulateandtheEmpire.-ImagineWagnerunderlikecircum-stances!-InISo2hewasfirstviolinintheorchestraoftheConsulBonaparte
j
in1806,soloviolinistoftheEmperorNapoleon
j
in1815,
maitredechapelle
toLouisXVIII.Kreutzerwas,indeed,amusicianwholivedinandforhisart;transientexternalitiesinfluencedhimonlyinsofarastheyfurnishednewmaterialforhisfacilefancytoworkwith.In1796hemadeanextendedtourthroughItaly,Ger-many,andtheNetherlands,onreturningfromwhichhewasappointedprofessorofviolinatthenewlyfound-edParisConservatory.Hereheentereduponanewphaseofprofessionalactivity,andsoonattractedandde-velopednumerousdistinguishedpupils.TheteachingsofViottiwerenowbearingfruit;Kreutzer'sbrilliantandfascinatingstylewontheenthusiasticadmirationandcon-fidenceofthestudents,andplacedhiminthefrontrankofcontemporaryvirtuosi.Heowedthisremarkablesuccesstoanaturallyfinemusicalinstinct,andzealforart,ratherthantostrictschoolingorstudy.Hisexecutionwascharacterizedbyfieryenergy,greatpurityandbreadthoftone,nobilityofphrasing,andthatindescribableindividualismofinterpre-tationwhichisthebirthrightofgeniusalone.InISoIheadvancedtoRode'splaceassoloviolinistattheGrandOpera,ofwhich,in1816,hewasmadesecond,andin1817first,
chefd'orchestre.
Allthistime,Kreutzerwasstillpas-sionatelydevotedtocomposition,-notsolelyforthelyricstage,butalsoforhischoseninstrument.Worksofthislatterdescriptionare19concertos,I,string-quartetsandasmanytrios,variousduos,
symphoniesconcertantes,
sonatas,airswithvariations,etc.;andwiththese,theworkonwhichhisfameasacomposerchieflyrests,namely,the"42Studies"(oftenpublishedinanincompleteeditionofbut
40
num-bers).Kreutzer,aleaderofthatrenownedschoolofviolin-playingwhichoriginatedinItaly,andwasfurtherdevel-opedinFrancebyVietti,BailIot,Rode,andhimself,gavetoposterity,inthese"42EtudesouCapricespourIeViolon,"aworkwhichstillofrightoccupiesaprominentplaceineverycourseofviolin-training,-whichis,infact,aclassicinitsprovince,andindispensableinlayingafirmfoundationforviolin-technique,andasapreparationforthemoredifficult"24Caprices"byRode.Anotherworkwhichhasserved-thoughinadifferentway-toembalmhismemory,isBeethoven's
Kreut{If
Sonata,
dedicatedin1806to,.hisfriend"Kreutzer.Inthedearthofpositiveinformation-evenThayerdismissesthesubjectinafewwords-wecanonlyconjecturetheextentofthefriendshipbetweenthetwo;itisaverredthatKreutzer,whovisitedViennain1798,neverevenplayedthesonata,andhadbutscantsympathyforBeet-hoven'sstyle.HewascreatedaKnightoftheLegionofHonorin1824.Inthesameyearheexchangedhispostas
chefd'arches-tre
forthatofgeneraldirectorofthemusicattheGrandOpera;butheldthispositiononlyuntil1826,thenretir-ingonapension.In1825,thebreakingofanarmcom-pelledhisretirementfromtheConservatoryandconcert-stage.Havingwrittenalastopera,
Mathilde,
withunwontedcare,heconfidentlyapplied,in1827.tothethenDirectorforitsproduction;buthissolicitationswereinvain.Mortifiedbythisrepulse,andapreytomortaldisease,helingeredforsomeyearsnearthesceneofhislife-longtriumphs.AdvisedtotrytheairofSwitzerlandforthebenefitofhishealth,heproceededthitherin1831;butitwastoolate.HeexpiredinGenevaonJunethe6th,1831.ItisrelatedthatapriestofthattownrefusedhimChristianburial,onthegroundthathehadbeencon-nectedwiththetheatre.
THBO.
BAKER.
 
Explanationofth~Signs.
Fortv_
twoStudies.
v
Up-bow.Pt.,POlflt.
'J
,..,Down-bow.HB.,half-bow.I~E-string.WB.,wholebow.
IE~
A-string.III~{D-string.IVi;lG-string.
_holdthefingerdown.
8
R.
KREUTZER.
\
\
,

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