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6913038 Solid State Physics

6913038 Solid State Physics

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Chapter 1: Chemical Bonding
Linus Pauling (1901–1994)December 28, 2001
Contents
1 The development of Bands and their lling 42 Dierent Types of Bonds 9
2.1 Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.2 Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2.1 Madelung Sums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.3 Metallic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.4 Van der Waals Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.4.1 Van der Waals-London Interaction . . . . . . . . 21
1
 
Ac
89
Actinium227.028
Th
90
Thorium232.038
Pa
91
Protactinium231.036
U
92
Uranium238.029
Np
93
Neptunium237.048
Pu
94
Plutonium(244)
Am
95
Americium(243)
Cm
96
Curium(247)
Bk
97
Berkelium(247)
Cf 
98
Californium(251)
Es
99
Einsteinium(252)
Fm
100
Fermium(257)
Md
101
Mendelevium(258)
No
102
Nobelium(259)
La
57
Lanthanum138.906
Ce
58
Cerium140.115
Pr
59
Praseodymium140.908
Nd
60
Neodymium144.24
Pm
61
Promethium(145)
Sm
62
Samarium150.36
Eu
63
Europium151.965
Gd
64
Gadolinium157.25
Tb
65
Terbium158.925
Dy
66
Dysprosium162.50
Ho
67
Holmium164.93
Er
68
Erbium167.26
Tm
69
Thulium168.934
Yb
70
Ytterbium173.04
7Fr
87
Francium(223)
Ra
88
Radium226.025
Lr
103
Lawrencium(260)
6Cs
55
Caesium132.905
Ba
56
Barium137.327
Lu
71
Lutetium174.967
Hf 
72
Halfnium178.49
Ta
73
Tantalum180.948
W
74
Tungsten183.85
Re
75
Rhenium186.207
Os
76
Osmium190.2
Ir
77
Iridium192.22
Pt
78
Platinum195.08
Au
79
Gold196.967
Hg
80
Mercury200.59
Tl
81
Thallium204.383
Pb
82
Lead207.2
Bi
83
Bismuth208.980
Po
84
Polonium(209)
At
85
Astatine(210)
Rn
86
Radon(222)
5Rb
37
Rubidium85.468
Sr
38
Strontium87.62
Y
39
Yttrium88.906
Zr
40
Zirconium91.224
Nb
41
Niobium92.906
Mo
42
Molybdenum95.94
Tc
43
Technetium(98)
Ru
44
Ruthenium101.07
Rh
45
Rhodium102.906
Pd
46
Palladium106.42
Ag
47
Silver107.868
Cd
48
Cadmium112.411
In
49
Indium114.82
Sn
50
Tin118.71
Sb
51
Antimony121.75
Te
52
Tellurium127.60
I
53
Iodine126.905
Xe
54
Xenon131.29
4K
19
Potassium39.098
Ca
20
Calcium40.078
Sc
21
Scandium44.956
Ti
22
Titanium47.88
V
23
Vanadium50.942
Cr
24
Chromium51.996
Mn
25
Manganese54.938
Fe
26
Iron55.847
Co
27
Cobalt58.933
Ni
28
Nickel58.69
Cu
29
Copper63.546
Zn
30
Zinc65.39
Ga
31
Gallium69.723
Ge
32
Germanium72.61
As
33
Arsenic74.922
Se
34
Selenium78.96
Br
35
Bromine79.904
Kr
36
Krypton83.80
3Na
11
Sodium22.990
Mg
12
Magnesium24.305
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Al
13
Aluminum26.982
Si
14
Silicon28.086
P
15
Phosphorous30.974
S
16
Sulfur32.066
Cl
17
Chlorine35.453
Ar
18
Argon39.948
2Li
3
Lithium6.941
Be
4
Beryllium9.012
B
5
Boron10.811
C
6
Carbon12.011
N
7
Nitrogen14.007
O
8
Oxygen15.999
F
9
Fluorine18.998
Ne
10
Neon20.180
1H
1
Hydrogen1.008
2 13 14 15 16 17He
2
Helium4.003
1 18
Periodic Table
2   
 
Solid state physics is the study of mainly periodic systems (or thingsthat are close to periodic) in the thermodynamic limit
10
21
atoms/cm
3
.At first this would appear to be a hopeless task, to solve such a largesystem.
Figure 1:
The simplest model of a solid is a periodic array of valance orbitals embedded in a matrix of atomic cores.
However, the self-similar, translationally invariant nature of the pe-riodic solid and the fact that the core electrons are
very 
tightly boundat each site (so we may ignore their dynamics) makes approximate so-lutions possible. Thus, the simplest model of a solid is a periodic arrayof valance orbitals embedded in a matrix of atomic cores. Solving theproblem in one of the irreducible elements of the periodic solid (cf. oneof the spheres in Fig. 1), is often equivalent to solving the whole sys-tem. For this reason we must study the periodicity and the mechanism(chemical bonding) which binds the lattice into a periodic structure.The latter is the emphasis of this chapter.
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