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Microbiology Chapter 10 Spring 07

Microbiology Chapter 10 Spring 07

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Published by: fallingupward312 on Oct 14, 2008
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09/06/2012

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Chapter 10. Viruses
General Characteristics
Viral Components
Viruses are non-cellular, obligate intracellular parasites
Genetic materials
o
Viral particle contains a single type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA,not both (bacteria have both)
o
Single- or double-stranded
o
Positive (+) or Negative (-) RNA: (+) RNA is used directly for proteinsynthesis
Viral nucleic acids are enclosed in a capsid (protein coat) and (in envelopedviruses) an envelop derived from host membrane
Viral morphology and host range
Sizes: small relative to bacterial or human cells
Shapes
o
Helical: helical capsid; e.g., tobacco mosaic virus
o
Polyhedral: many-sided; e.g., polio virus
o
Enveloped: e.g., influenza virus, herpes simplex virus, HIV
o
Complex: e.g., T-even bacteriophage, composed of a polyhedral head anda helical tail
Most viruses are tissue-specific and species-specific, determined by viral receptor on cell surfaces
Viral replication
Viruses multiply by taking over the metabolic machinery of the host cell
Key steps in a viral replication cycle
o
Adsorption and attachment to specific receptor sites on a host cell surface
o
Penetration of viral DNA or RNA into the host cell
o
Biosynthesis of viral components using the metabolic machinery of thehost cell
o
Release of new viral particles from the host cell
Cytopathic effects (CPE) of viral infection: e.g., multi-nucleation (formationof cell with multiple nuclei) and transformation (becoming cancer cells)
Viral Taxonomy
 
Viral classification is based NOT on symptomatology (the disease they cause), buton:
 Nucleic acid type (e.g., DNA or RNA viruses)
Morphology (e.g., enveloped or non-enveloped)
Strategy for replication (e.g., retroviruses uses reverse transcriptase)
Examples of RNA viruses
(+) Sense RNA viruses
o
Picornaviruses: small, naked, polyhedral, (+) RNA, e.g., poliovirus,hepatitis A virus, and rhinoviruses (causing common cold and SARS)
o
Togaviruses: small, enveloped, polyhedral, (+) RNA, e.g., rubella virus
o
Flaviviruses: enveloped, polyhedral, (+) RNA, often transmitted byarthropods ("arbovirus"), e.g., yellow fever virus, hepatitis C virus, andWest Nile virus
o
Retroviruses: enveloped, (+) RNA, uses reverse-transcriptase (much lower fidelity than normal DNA polymerase) for replication, e.g., HIV-1 (humanimmunodeficiency virus, type 1) and HTLV (human T-cell leukemiaviruses)
(-) Sense RNA viruses
o
Paramyxoviruses: enveloped, (-) RNA, e.g., viruses causing mumps andmeasles
o
Rhbdoviruses: e.g., rabies virus
o
Orthomyxoviruses: enveloped, containing multiple RNA segments, e.g.,influenza A virus
Examples of DNA viruses
Adenviruses: naked, linear dsDNA
Herpesviruses: large, enveloped, linear dsDNA, often existing as latent infectionin nerve cells, e.g., Herpes simplex viruses (causing cold sores and genital warts)and viruses causing chickenpox and shingles
Poxviruses: large, enveloped, linear dsDNA, e.g., smallpox virus
Hepadnaviruses: small, enveloped, e.g., hepatitis B virus
Emerging Viruses
HIV-1
o
Is closely related to SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) and likelyevolved from SIV recently (about 100 years ago) by gaining humanspecificity
o
Infects the CD4 type of T-helper cells, using CCR5 molecule on the cellsurface as receptor 
 
o
There is rapid turnover of viral populations during the course of infection,due to the killing of viruses by the host immune response and rapid re-generation of new viral particles
o
AIDS develops when viral replication overcomes T cell re-generation
o
Patients die from opportunistic infections (pathogens suppressed inhealthy individuals)
Influenza viruses
o
Three main types (A, B, C)
o
Viral types determined by spikes on the viral envelop: H spike(hemagglutinin is used for attachment to host cells) and N spike(neuraminidase is an enzyme used for cutting the new viral particles loosefrom the host cell, to release the virus)
o
Reservoirs (non-symptomatic carriers) include human, birds (wildmigratory birds or domestic poultry), and swine
o
Rapid evolution due to antigenic "drift" (point mutations in spikes) andantigenic "shift" (reassortment of RNA segments)
SARS (Sever acute respiratory syndrome) virus
o
Caused by a new type of coronavirus (similar to the common cold virus)
o
Maintained in wild life reservoir-species like civet cats and recentlygained human infectivity
Summary: Causes of emerging viruses
o
Ecological disruption: increasing contact with wild life creatingopportunities for viruses to jump hosts from wild animals to humans. HIV,SARS, "bird flu" are examples of "zoonosis" (infectious diseasesoriginated from wild animals)
o
"Boeing Effect": increasing global transportation of goods and peoplefacilitate rapid dissemination (e.g., SARS and West Nile viruses)
o
Rapid evolution: HIV evolves within a single individual due to a highmutation rate, flu viruses change from year to year due to antigenic driftand antigenic shift.
Viral multiplication
Multiplication of bacteriophages
o
T4 Phage-The lytic cycle (resulting in cell death)1.Attachment (at a cell "receptor site")2.Penetration (breaks down part of cell wall and injects DNA)3.Biosynthesis (using protein and DNA synthesizing machinery othe host cell)4.Maturation (viral particle assembly)5.Release (result in the lysis and death of the host cell)
o
Lambda Phage-The lysogenic cycle (causing NO cell lysis or death)1.Attachment2.Penetration

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