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Microbiology Chapter 17 Spring 07

Microbiology Chapter 17 Spring 07

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Published by: fallingupward312 on Oct 14, 2008
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09/29/2012

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Chapter 17. Adaptive Immunityand Immunization
Types of Acquired Immunity
Actively acquired adaptive immunity: the use of antibodies produced by one'sown body
o
 Naturally acquired: by having disease or infection
o
Passively acquired: by receiving vaccine
Passively acquired adaptive immunity: the use of ready-made antibodies
o
 Naturally acquired: infants receiving maternal antibodies across placentaor in milk 
o
Passively acquired: by receiving injection of gamma globulin or immuneserum
Antigen
Antigen: biological macromolecules able to elicit immune responses, usuallysurface proteins of parasites.
Epitopes: antigenic determinants. These are surface-exposed, small (3-5 aminoacids) areas of a protein molecule. A single antigen molecule have multipleepitopes.
Hapten: a small molecule that converts a normal protein into an antigen. Neither the molecule itself nor the protein alone is an antigen. Example: penicillin, whichin some individuals binds to proteins molecules and elicit hypersensitivity("allergy").
General Properties of Adaptive Immunity
Dual Nature
o
Humoral immunity: carried out by antibodies in the blood; most effectiveagainst
extracellular 
parasites (e.g., toxins, bacteria, viruses beforeentering the host cell)
o
Cell-mediated immunity: carried out by T cells; most effective against
intracellular 
infection (e.g., virus-infected cells)
Recognition of self versus nonself 
o
Destroying foreign substances
o
Tolerance of self tissues
o
Mechanisms
Clonal selection: selective propagation of lymphocytes (B or Tcells) that have receptors for a foreign antigen
 
Clonal deletion: selective inactivation of lymphocytes that havereceptors for self antigens.
Specificity: adaptive defenses are specific to pathogen species and strains
Heterogeneity/Diversity: adaptive immunity is able to defend a great variety of antigens
Memory: the ability to respond quickly to previously encountered infections
Humoral Immunity
Antibodies/Immunoglobins/Ig
o
Y-shaped molecules consisting of 2 light chains and 2 heavy chains
o
Chains are linked by disulfide fonds and have constant and variableregions
o
Variable regions of light and high chains have antigen-binding sites
o
Constant regions have tissue-binding sites that can activate complement, participate in allergic reactions, and bind to macrophage
Classes of antibodies
o
IgG: main Ig in serum; able to cross placenta; provide long-term immunity
o
IgA: mostly in mucus and attached to the digestive, respiratory, andgenitourinary systems
o
IgM: pentamer; antibody produced first (in T-independent primaryresponse)
o
IgE: binds to basophils and mast cells, resulting in allergic reaction
o
IgD: attached to B cells (not secreted)
Primary and secondary responses
o
Primary response:
1st exposure to an antigen; long lag period (~5 days); IgM->IgGswitch; memory cells formed
Two mechanisms: T-dependent (requiring activation by T-helper cells, causing IgM->IgG switch) and T-dependent (requiring noactivation by T cells; producing IgM; no memory cells produced)
o
Secondary response: subsequent exposures; rapid increase and sustained production of IgG
Consequences of antigen-antibody reactions: agglutination (sticking together of microbes), opsonization, activation of complement, cell lysis, and neutralization(inactivation of toxin, virus particles by the formation of antigen-antibodycomplexes)
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs): single-type antibodies produced
in vitro
by aclone of cultured cells. Mab-producting cells are made by fusion of mousemyeloma cells (cancerous immune cells) and B cells.
Cell-Mediated Immunity

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