home to several educational institutions including the University of Kerala, and to many science and technology institutions, the most prominent being the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Technopark, the IndianInstitute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) and the Indian Instituteof Science, Education and Research (IISER).
Thiruvananthapuram is one of the oldest cities in India, with periodicreferences in many Greek and Roman literatures. However the city's position came forefront when the Venad Dynasty came into power of Southern regions, after the Great Partition of Kerala Empire of Cheras in14th century. Though Venad rulers had their capital at Kollam (70kmsnorth of Thiruvananthapuram), the town was well considered as a major trading centre. The rise of new Venad King, Maharaja Marthanada Varmaand subsequently formation of Travancore Kingdom in late 17th century proved a turning point for the city. The Raja, after formation of thekingdom by annexing many small states and feudal principalites,dedicated the entire kingdom to Lord Padmanabha, the presiding deity of Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple and crowned as Emperor, making theroyal family to rule in the name of the lord. This resulted in makingThiruvananthapuram as the capital of new kingdom and the city startedgrowing around the temple. In 19th century, the entire administration was brought to Thiruvananthapuram city from the Royal headquarters of SreePadmanabhapuram Fort (50kms from Thiruvananthapuram city), whichmarked completion of first phase of Thiruvananthapuram city.Travancore was one of the most powerful Indian Princely state duringBritish Raj, with the kingdom becoming 3rd most richest state amongnative states. Thiruvananthapuram city, under the royal patronage grewinto a major academic, cultural hub of India, with many firsts to its credit.The Maharajas always cared to keep their capital, one of the mostgreenest cities in India, which resulted in many praises for the capital. Asthe power and wealth of Travancore Kingdom reached its peak duringearly 20th century, Thiruvananthapuram became a major prosperous city.With independence of India, the Travancore chose to ascend into IndiaUnion. After formation of Kerala state in 1957, it was decided to retainThiruvananthapuram as the capital city.Being a capital and administrative city, it remains to be one of the hottest political center in Kerala. The 3rd phase of the development came in early1990s, when Kerala Government decided to establish Technopark- a largeIT Park. The growth of Technopark as the largest InformationTechnology park in South Asia, made a major impetus for the growth of city. Today the city is on focus of making it as major IT/Bio-Technologyhub.The arterial road of Thiruvananthapuram is the