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Consumer Behavior Models and Consumer Behavior in Tourism

Consumer Behavior Models and Consumer Behavior in Tourism

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Published by Ashok Kumar

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Published by: Ashok Kumar on Sep 18, 2011
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08/07/2012

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Consumer Behavior Models
1.NICOSIA MODEL
This model focuses on the relationship between the firm and its potentialconsumers. The firm communicates with consumers through its marketingmessages (advertising), and the consumers react to these messages by purchasing response. Looking to the model we will find that the firm and theconsumer are connected with each other, the firm tries to influence theconsumer and the consumer is influencing the firm by his decision.Field 1 AttitudeField 2: SearchAnd evaluationOf mean/end(s)Experience relation(s)(Preaction field)MotivationField 4:Feedback  Field 3: Act of PurchasePurchasingBehavior 
Figure Nicosia Model of Consumer Decision Processes
The Nicosia model is divided into four major fields:
1 MessageExposureSubfield 1FirmsAttributeSubfield 2ConsumersAttributes(EspeciallyPredispositionSearch
and evaluation
Decision(Action)Consumption
 
Field 1: The consumer attitude based on the firms’ messages.
The first field is divided into two subfields.The first subfield deals with the firm’s marketing environment andcommunication efforts that affect consumer attitudes, the competitiveenvironment, and characteristics of target market. Subfield two specifies theconsumer characteristics e.g., experience, personality, and how he perceives the promotional idea toward the product in this stage the consumer forms hisattitude toward the firm’s product based on his interpretation of the message.
Field 2: search and evaluation
The consumer will start to search for other firm’s brand and evaluate the firm’s brand in comparison with alternate brands. In this case the firm motivates theconsumer to purchase its brands.
Field 3: T he act of t he purchase
The result of motivation will arise by convincing the consumer to purchase thefirm products from a specific retailer.
Field 4: Feed back 
This model analyses the feedback of both the firm and the consumer after  purchasing the product. The firm will benefit from its sales data as a feedback,and the consumer will use his experience with the product affects theindividuals attitude and predisposition’s concerning future messages from thefirm.
2.HOWARD-SHETH MODELa)Inputs.
These input variables consist of three distinct types of stimuli (informationsources) in the consumer’s environment. The marketer in the form of product or  brand information furnishes physical brand characteristics (significativestimuli) and verbal or visual product characteristics (symbolic stimuli). Thethird type is provided by the consumer’s social environment (family, referencegroup, and social class). All three types of stimuli provide inputs concerningthe product class or specific brands to the specific consumer.Inputs Perceptual Constructs Learning Constructs Outputs
2
 
Stimuli display
Figure 2-3 A Simplified Description of the Theory of Buyer BehaviorSource: Howard, and Sheth,Pp32 (1969)
b)
Perceptual and Learning Constructs
,The central part of the model deals with the psychological variables involvedwhen the consumer is contemplating a decision. Some of the variables are perceptual in nature, and are concerned with how the consumer receives andunderstands the information from the input stimuli and other parts of the model.
3Significativea. Quality b. Pricec. Distinctived. Servicee. AvailabilitySymbolica. Quality b. Pricec. Distinctived. Servicee. AvailabilitySociala. Family b. Referencegroupsc. Social classPurchaseIntentionAttitudeBrandComprehe-AttentionOvertsearchStimulusambiguityAttentionPercept-ual biasConfidenceAttitudeMotivesChoiceCriteriaBrandCompre-hensionIntention

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