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Madres Gestantes 1

Madres Gestantes 1

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Published by: api-3695685 on Oct 14, 2008
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03/18/2014

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2da. quincena, ENERO 2007
REVISTA DE ASESOR\u00cdA ESPECIALIZADAG\ue000
INFORMATIVO
CABALLERO BUSTAMANTE
CONTENIDO
I\ue001\ue000orme Especial\ue000
Normas\ue000especiales\ue000para\ue000madres\ue000trabajadoras\ue000
G1
\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013 \u2013 \u2013 \u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013
Modelos y Formatos\ue000
Modelos\ue000re\ue001eridos\ue000a\ue000derechos\ue000de\ue000las\ue000madres\ue000trabajadoras\ue000
G4
\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013 \u2013 \u2013 \u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013\u2013
Come\ue001tarios\ue000
Normas\ue000complementarias\ue000del\ue000Sistema\ue000de\ue000Inspecci\u00f3n\ue000Laboral\ue000
G5
Aportes\ue000y\ue000retribuciones\ue000en\ue000el\ue000Sistema\ue000Privado\ue000de\ue000Pensiones\ue000
G6
Informe Especial
Normas especiales para madres trabajadoras
n
Introducci\u00f3n

Seg\u00fan\ue000el\ue000art\u00edculo\ue00023\u00b0\ue000de\ue000la\ue000Constituci\u00f3n\ue000"El\ue000 trabajo\ue000en\ue000sus\ue000diversas\ue000modalidades,\ue000es\ue000objeto\ue000 de\ue000atenci\u00f3n\ue000prioritaria\ue000del\ue000Estado,\ue000el\ue000cual\ue000pro- tege\ue000especialmente\ue000a\ue000las\ue000madres,\ue000al\ue000menor\ue000de\ue000 edad\ue000y\ue000al\ue000impedido\ue000que\ue000trabajan."

Con\ue000 relaci\u00f3n\ue000 a\ue000 este\ue000 dipositivo\ue000 se\ue000 han\ue000 regulado\ue000 una\ue000 serie\ue000 de\ue000 benefcios\ue000 laborales\ue000 a\ue000 \ue001avor\ue000 de\ue000 las\ue000 trabajadoras\ue000 que\ue000 tienen\ue000 la\ue000 condici\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000madres.\ue000En\ue000el\ue000presente\ue000in\ue001orme\ue000 se\ue000 analizar\u00e1n\ue000 las\ue000 principales\ue000 normas\ue000 que\ue000 confguran\ue000 este\ue000 r\u00e9gimen\ue000 de\ue000 protecci\u00f3n\ue000 a\ue000 \ue001avor\ue000de\ue000las\ue000madres\ue000trabajadoras.

1. Protecci\u00f3n contra el despido
nulo

Seg\u00fan\ue000el\ue000literal\ue000e.\ue000del\ue000art\u00edculo\ue00029\u00ba\ue000del\ue000D.S.\ue000 N\u00ba\ue000003-97-TR\ue000(27.03.97)\ue000se\ue000considera\ue000nulo\ue000el\ue000 despido\ue000que\ue000tenga\ue000por\ue000motivo\ue000el\ue000embarazo,\ue000 si\ue000aquel\ue000se\ue000produce\ue000en\ue000cualquier\ue000momento\ue000 del\ue000per\u00edodo\ue000de\ue000gestaci\u00f3n\ue000o\ue000dentro\ue000de\ue000los\ue00090\ue000 d\u00edas\ue000posteriores\ue000al\ue000parto.\ue000Se\ue000presumir\u00e1\ue000que\ue000 el\ue000 despido\ue000 tiene\ue000 por\ue000 motivo\ue000 el\ue000 embarazo,\ue000 en\ue000 los\ue000 casos\ue000 en\ue000 los\ue000 que\ue000 el\ue000 empleador\ue000 no\ue000 acredite\ue000 la\ue000 existencia\ue000 de\ue000 causa\ue000 justa\ue000 de\ue000 despido.\ue000Para\ue000alcanzar\ue000la\ue000protecci\u00f3n\ue000antes\ue000 descrita,\ue000 es\ue000 necesario\ue000 que\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 haya\ue000 notifcado\ue000 documentalmente\ue000 al\ue000 em- pleador\ue000 del\ue000 embarazo\ue000 en\ue000 \ue001orma\ue000 previa\ue000 al\ue000 despido,\ue000 debi\u00e9ndose\ue000 aclarar\ue000 adem\u00e1s\ue000 que\ue000 dicha\ue000protecci\u00f3n\ue000no\ue000enerva\ue000el\ue000derecho\ue000del\ue000 empleador\ue000a\ue000despedir\ue000a\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000por\ue000 causa\ue000justa\ue000contemplada\ue000en\ue000la\ue000ley.

Al\ue000respecto,\ue000seg\u00fan\ue000la\ue000sentencia\ue000casatoria\ue000 N\u00ba\ue000 275-2005-AREQUIPA\ue000 (publicada\ue000 en\ue000 el\ue000 Diario\ue000 Ofcial\ue000 "El\ue000 Peruano"\ue000 el\ue000 02.11.2006)\ue000 dicha\ue000 notifcaci\u00f3n\ue000 no\ue000 ser\u00e1\ue000 necesaria\ue000 si\ue000 el\ue000 estado\ue000 de\ue000 gestaci\u00f3n\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 es\ue000 evidente.

2. Descanso pre y post natal
Otro\ue000de\ue000los\ue000derechos\ue000concedidos\ue000a\ue000\ue001avor\ue000

la\ue000 madre\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 es\ue000 el\ue000 descanso\ue000 pre\ue000 y\ue000 post\ue000natal,\ue000el\ue000cual\ue000se\ue000encuentra\ue000regulado\ue000por\ue000 la\ue000Ley\ue000N\u00ba\ue00026646\ue000(27.06.96)\ue000\u2013modifcado\ue000por\ue000la\ue000 Ley\ue000N\u00b0\ue00027402\ue000(20.01.2001)\u2013\ue000y\ue000complementa- do\ue000por\ue000la\ue000Ley\ue000N\u00ba\ue00027606\ue000(23.12.2001).\ue000

De\ue000 acuerdo\ue000 con\ue000 estas\ue000 normas\ue000 la\ue000 madre\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 tiene\ue000 derecho\ue000 a\ue000 lo\ue000 siguientes\ue000 benefcios.\ue000

a. Desca\ue001so por 90 d\u00edas

\ue000 La\ue000trabajadora\ue000gestante\ue000tiene\ue000derecho\ue000a\ue000 gozar\ue000 de\ue000 45\ue000 d\u00edas\ue000 de\ue000 descanso\ue000 pre\ue000 natal\ue000 y\ue00045\ue000d\u00edas\ue000de\ue000descanso\ue000post\ue000natal.\ue000

\ue000 El\ue000descanso\ue000post\ue000natal\ue000se\ue000extender\u00e1\ue000por\ue000 30\ue000d\u00edas\ue000naturales\ue000adicionales\ue000en\ue000los\ue000casos\ue000 de\ue000nacimiento\ue000m\u00faltiple.

\ue000. Adela\ue001to y retraso del parto

\ue000 En\ue000los\ue000casos\ue000en\ue000los\ue000que\ue000se\ue000produjera\ue000el\ue000 adelanto\ue000del\ue000alumbramiento\ue000respecto\ue000de\ue000 la\ue000\ue001echa\ue000probable\ue000del\ue000parto\ue000fjada\ue000para\ue000es- tablecer\ue000el\ue000inicio\ue000del\ue000descanso\ue000pre\ue000natal,\ue000 los\ue000d\u00edas\ue000de\ue000adelanto\ue000deber\u00e1n\ue000acumularse\ue000 al\ue000descanso\ue000post\ue000natal.

\ue000 Cuando\ue000el\ue000alumbramiento\ue000se\ue000produjera\ue000 despu\u00e9s\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 \ue001echa\ue000 probable\ue000 de\ue000 parto,\ue000 los\ue000 d\u00edas\ue000 de\ue000 retraso\ue000 deber\u00e1n\ue000 ser\ue000 consi- derados\ue000 como\ue000 descanso\ue000 m\u00e9dico\ue000 por\ue000 incapacidad\ue000 temporal\ue000 para\ue000 el\ue000 trabajo\ue000 y\ue000 ser\u00e1n\ue000pagados\ue000como\ue000tales.

c. Postergaci\ue004\ue001 del desca\ue001so

\ue000 La\ue000trabajadora\ue000puede\ue000decidir\ue000que\ue000el\ue000goce\ue000 del\ue000 descanso\ue000 pre\ue000 natal\ue000 sea\ue000 di\ue001erido\ue000 par- cial\ue000 o\ue000 totalmente,\ue000 y\ue000 acumulado\ue000 al\ue000 post\ue000 natal.\ue000 Para\ue000 ello,\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000 comunicar\ue000 su\ue000 decisi\u00f3n\ue000al\ue000empleador\ue000con\ue000una\ue000antelaci\u00f3n\ue000 no\ue000menor\ue000de\ue0002\ue000meses\ue000a\ue000la\ue000\ue001echa\ue000probable\ue000 del\ue000 parto,\ue000 adjuntado\ue000 el\ue000 in\ue001orme\ue000 m\u00e9dico\ue000 que\ue000 certifque\ue000 que\ue000 dicha\ue000 postergaci\u00f3n\ue000 no\ue000a\ue001ectar\u00e1\ue000su\ue000salud\ue000ni\ue000la\ue000del\ue000concebido.\ue000 Esta\ue000postergaci\u00f3n\ue000no\ue000autoriza\ue000a\ue000la\ue000traba- jadora\ue000gestante\ue000a\ue000variar\ue000o\ue000abstenerse\ue000del\ue000 cumplimiento\ue000de\ue000sus\ue000labores\ue000habituales,\ue000 salvo\ue000acuerdo\ue000con\ue000el\ue000empleador.

d. Goce del desca\ue001so vacacio\ue001al

\ue000 Las\ue000trabajadoras\ue000gestantes\ue000tienen\ue000 derecho\ue000 a\ue000 que\ue000 el\ue000 per\u00edodo\ue000 de\ue000 descan- so\ue000 vacacional\ue000 por\ue000 r\u00e9cord\ue000 cumplido\ue000 y\ue000 vencido\ue000\ue000pendiente\ue000de\ue000goce,\ue000se\ue000inicie\ue000a\ue000 partir\ue000 del\ue000 d\u00eda\ue000 siguiente\ue000 de\ue000 concluido\ue000 el\ue000 descanso\ue000post\ue000natal,\ue000siempre\ue000y\ue000cuando\ue000 comunique\ue000tal\ue000decisi\u00f3n\ue000a\ue000su\ue000empleador\ue000 con\ue000 una\ue000 anticipaci\u00f3n\ue000 no\ue000 menor\ue000 de\ue000 15\ue000 d\u00edas\ue000 calendario\ue000 al\ue000 inicio\ue000 del\ue000 goce\ue000 del\ue000 descanso\ue000vacacional.

Durante\ue000 estos\ue000 per\u00edodos\ue000 de\ue000 descanso\ue000 la\ue000 madre\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 podr\u00e1\ue000 gozar\ue000 de\ue000 los\ue000 subsidios\ue000 que\ue000 otorga\ue000 la\ue000 seguridad\ue000 social,\ue000 es\ue000 decir,\ue000 el\ue000 subsidio\ue000 por\ue000 pre\ue000 y\ue000 post\ue000 natal\ue000 y\ue000 el\ue000subsidio\ue000por\ue000lactancia,\ue000siempre\ue000y\ue000cuando\ue000 cumpla\ue000 con\ue000 los\ue000 requisitos\ue000 establecidos\ue000 en\ue000 las\ue000normas\ue000pertinentes.\ue000

3. Permiso por lactancia

De\ue000acuerdo\ue000con\ue000la\ue000Ley\ue000N\u00ba\ue00027240\ue000(23.12.99),\ue000 modi\ue001icada\ue000 por\ue000 las\ue000 Leyes\ue000 N\u00bas.\ue000 27591\ue000 (13.12.2001)\ue000 y\ue000 28731\ue000 (13.05.2006)\ue000 y\ue000 comple- mentada\ue000por\ue000la\ue000Ley\ue000N\u00ba\ue00027403\ue000(20.01.2001)\ue000la\ue000 madre\ue000trabajadora\ue000al\ue000t\u00e9rmino\ue000de\ue000su\ue000per\u00edodo\ue000 de\ue000descanso\ue000post\ue000natal\ue000tiene\ue000derecho\ue000a\ue000una\ue000\ue000 hora\ue000diaria\ue000de\ue000permiso\ue000por\ue000lactancia\ue000materna\ue000 hasta\ue000que\ue000su\ue000hijo\ue000tenga\ue0001\ue000a\u00f1o\ue000de\ue000edad.\ue000Este\ue000 permiso\ue000podr\u00e1\ue000ser\ue000\ue001raccionado\ue000en\ue0002\ue000tiempos\ue000 iguales\ue000y\ue000ser\u00e1\ue000otorgado\ue000dentro\ue000de\ue000su\ue000jornada\ue000 laboral.\ue000En\ue000caso\ue000de\ue000parto\ue000m\u00faltiple,\ue000el\ue000permiso\ue000 se\ue000incrementar\u00e1\ue000una\ue000hora\ue000m\u00e1s\ue000al\ue000d\u00eda.\ue000

La\ue000 oportunidad\ue000 del\ue000 goce\ue000 de\ue000 este\ue000 des- canso\ue000ser\u00e1\ue000acordada\ue000por\ue000el\ue000empleador\ue000y\ue000la\ue000 trabajadora.\ue000

La\ue000 hora\ue000 diaria\ue000 de\ue000 permiso\ue000 por\ue000 lactancia\ue000 materna\ue000se\ue000considerar\u00e1\ue000como\ue000e\ue001ectivamente\ue000 laborada\ue000 para\ue000 todo\ue000 e\ue001ecto\ue000 legal,\ue000 inclusive\ue000 para\ue000lo\ue000relativo\ue000al\ue000goce\ue000de\ue000la\ue000remuneraci\u00f3n\ue000 correspondiente.

Por\ue000 \u00faltimo,\ue000 este\ue000 bene\ue001icio\ue000 no\ue000 puede\ue000 ser\ue000 compensado\ue000 ni\ue000 sustituido\ue000 por\ue000 ning\u00fan\ue000 otro,\ue000 y\ue000 no\ue000 a\ue001ecta\ue000 los\ue000 mayores\ue000 benefcios\ue000

BLACK
COLOR
Informativo Derecho Laboral
2da. quincena, ENERO 2007
REVISTA DE ASESOR\u00cdA ESPECIALIZADA
G2
INFORMATIVO
CABALLERO BUSTAMANTE

otorgados\ue000 sobre\ue000 esta\ue000 misma\ue000 materia\ue000 por\ue000 ley\ue000espec\u00edfca,\ue000pacto\ue000colectivo\ue000o\ue000costumbre\ue000 reconocida.

4. Proteci\u00f3n a la mujer gestante
en labores de riesgo

Mediante\ue000la\ue000Ley\ue000N\u00b0\ue00028048\ue000(01.08.2003)\ue000se\ue000 estableci\u00f3\ue000que\ue000en\ue000los\ue000centros\ue000de\ue000trabajo\ue000las\ue000 mujeres\ue000gestantes\ue000solicitar\u00e1n\ue000al\ue000empleador\ue000 no\ue000realizar\ue000labores\ue000que\ue000pongan\ue000en\ue000peligro\ue000la\ue000 salud\ue000o\ue000desarrollo\ue000del\ue000embri\u00f3n\ue000y\ue000\ue001eto\ue000durante\ue000 el\ue000per\u00edodo\ue000de\ue000gestaci\u00f3n.\ue000Asimismo,\ue000luego\ue000de\ue000 tomar\ue000 conocimiento\ue000 de\ue000 lo\ue000 solicitado\ue000 por\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora,\ue000 el\ue000 empleador\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000 asignar\ue000 labores\ue000que\ue000no\ue000acarreen\ue000riesgo\ue000para\ue000su\ue000salud\ue000 o\ue000 el\ue000 ni\u00f1o,\ue000 sin\ue000 que\ue000 esto\ue000 a\ue001ecte\ue000 los\ue000 derechos\ue000 laborales\ue000de\ue000la\ue000madre\ue000trabajadora.

Dicha\ue000 norma\ue000 ha\ue000 sido\ue000 reglamentada\ue000 a\ue000 trav\u00e9s\ue000del\ue000D.S.\ue000N\u00b0\ue000009-2004-TR\ue000(21.07.2004)\ue000el\ue000 cual\ue000desarrolla\ue000la\ue000\ue001orma\ue000en\ue000que\ue000deben\ue000llevar\ue000a\ue000 cabo\ue000dichas\ue000labores,\ue000sin\ue000que\ue000se\ue000genere\ue000riesgo\ue000 para\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000gestante\ue000o\ue000el\ue000ni\u00f1o.

4.1. Sit\ue002acio\ue001es co\ue001sideradas riesgosas
\ue000

Son\ue000situaciones\ue000susceptibles\ue000de\ue000poner\ue000 en\ue000riesgo\ue000la\ue000salud\ue000de\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000gestante\ue000 o\ue000el\ue000desarrollo\ue000normal\ue000del\ue000embri\u00f3n\ue000y\ue000el\ue000 \ue001eto,\ue000las\ue000siguientes:

a.\ue000 Dentro\ue000de\ue000los\ue000riesgos\ue000generados\ue000por\ue000 las\ue000 condiciones\ue000 de\ue000 trabajo\ue000 durante\ue000 el\ue000\ue000per\u00edodo\ue000de\ue000gestaci\u00f3n:

\u2013\ue000\ue000 La\ue000exposici\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000ges- tante\ue000a\ue000agentes\ue000\ue001\u00edsicos,\ue000qu\u00edmicos,\ue000 biol\u00f3gicos,\ue000ergon\u00f3micos\ue000y\ue000psico- sociales,\ue000 procedimientos\ue000 o\ue000 con- diciones\ue000 de\ue000 trabajo\ue000 peligrosos,\ue000 debido\ue000al\ue000lugar\ue000donde\ue000desarrolla\ue000 las\ue000labores\ue000propias\ue000de\ue000su\ue000puesto\ue000 de\ue000trabajo.

\u2013\ue000\ue000 La\ue000manipulaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000sustancias\ue000 peligrosas\ue000 necesarias\ue000 para\ue000 la\ue000 realizaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000las\ue000labores\ue000propias\ue000 de\ue000su\ue000puesto\ue000de\ue000trabajo.

b.\ue000 Asimismo,\ue000 existen\ue000 riesgos\ue000 adicio- nales\ue000 derivados\ue000 de\ue000 cambios\ue000 en\ue000 la\ue000 mujer\ue000gestante.

\u2013\ue000 El\ue000deterioro\ue000preexistente\ue000en\ue000la\ue000 salud\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 mujer\ue000 que,\ue000 unido\ue000 al\ue000 estado\ue000 de\ue000 gestaci\u00f3n,\ue000 le\ue000 impide\ue000 desarrollar\ue000labores\ue000propias\ue000de\ue000su\ue000 puesto\ue000 de\ue000 trabajo,\ue000 sin\ue000 constituir\ue000 incapacidad\ue000 temporal\ue000 para\ue000 el\ue000 trabajo.

\u2013\ue000 El\ue000deterioro\ue000del\ue000estado\ue000de\ue000salud\ue000o\ue000 condici\u00f3n\ue000\ue001\u00edsica\ue000generado\ue000por\ue000el\ue000 embarazo,\ue000que\ue000impide\ue000a\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000 gestante\ue000desarrollar\ue000labores\ue000pro- pias\ue000de\ue000su\ue000puesto\ue000de\ue000trabajo,\ue000sin\ue000 constituir\ue000 incapacidad\ue000 temporal\ue000 para\ue000el\ue000trabajo.

4.2. Car\u00e1cter temporal del cam\ue000io de
la\ue000ores
\ue000

La\ue000asignaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000nuevas\ue000labores\ue000o\ue000dis- tintas\ue000a\ue000las\ue000habituales\ue000es\ue000una\ue000situaci\u00f3n\ue000 temporal,\ue000 la\ue000 cual\ue000 se\ue000 va\ue000 a\ue000 mantener\ue000 en\ue000

tanto\ue000persista\ue000alguna\ue000de\ue000las\ue000situaciones\ue000 descritas\ue000en\ue000el\ue000numeral\ue0004.1,\ue000para\ue000culmi- nar\ue000con\ue000el\ue000parto.

\ue000

Sin\ue000 embargo,\ue000 por\ue000 pacto\ue000 individual\ue000 o\ue000 convenio\ue000 colectivo\ue000 se\ue000 puede\ue000 acordar\ue000 extender\ue000la\ue000medida\ue000hasta\ue000que\ue000concluya\ue000 el\ue000 per\u00edodo\ue000 de\ue000 lactancia,\ue000 en\ue000 atenci\u00f3n\ue000 a\ue000 los\ue000riesgos\ue000que\ue000puedan\ue000a\ue001ectar\ue000al\ue000reci\u00e9n\ue000 nacido\ue000a\ue000trav\u00e9s\ue000de\ue000la\ue000leche\ue000materna.

4.3. O\ue000ligacio\ue001es del empleador

a.\ue000 Evaluar\ue000los\ue000riesgos\ue000por\ue000exposici\u00f3n\ue000a\ue000 agentes\ue000\ue001\u00edsicos,\ue000qu\u00edmicos,\ue000biol\u00f3gicos,\ue000 ergon\u00f3micos\ue000 y\ue000 psicosociales,\ue000 proce- dimientos\ue000 o\ue000 condiciones\ue000 de\ue000 trabajo\ue000 que,\ue000 por\ue000 el\ue000 puesto\ue000 de\ue000 trabajo\ue000 o\ue000 por\ue000 las\ue000 labores\ue000 que\ue000 se\ue000 realizan,\ue000 puedan\ue000 a\ue001ectar\ue000la\ue000salud\ue000de\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000gestante\ue000 o\ue000el\ue000desarrollo\ue000normal\ue000del\ue000embri\u00f3n\ue000y\ue000 el\ue000\ue001eto,\ue000de\ue000manera\ue000cierta\ue000o\ue000potencial.

\ue000\ue000\ue000\ue000Dicha\ue000 evaluaci\u00f3n\ue000 debe\ue000 contemplar\ue000
lo\ue000siguiente:
\u2013\ue000\ue000 Naturaleza,\ue000grado\ue000y\ue000duraci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000
la\ue000exposici\u00f3n.
\u2013\ue000\ue000 Valores\ue000 l\u00edmite\ue000 permitidos\ue000 de\ue000
exposici\u00f3n.

\u2013\ue000\ue000 Posibles\ue000e\ue001ectos\ue000en\ue000la\ue000salud\ue000de\ue000las\ue000 trabajadoras\ue000 expuestas\ue000 a\ue000 riesgos\ue000 particulares.

b.\ue000 Poner\ue000en\ue000conocimiento\ue000del\ue000personal\ue000 el\ue000 resultado\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 evaluaci\u00f3n\ue000 de\ue000 riesgos\ue000que\ue000pueden\ue000a\ue001ectar\ue000la\ue000salud\ue000 de\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000gestante\ue000o\ue000el\ue000desarrollo\ue000 normal\ue000del\ue000embri\u00f3n\ue000y\ue000el\ue000\ue001eto.

c.\ue000 Repetir\ue000la\ue000evaluaci\u00f3n\ue000cada\ue000vez\ue000 que\ue000 se\ue000 produzca\ue000 un\ue000 cambio\ue000 en\ue000 las\ue000 condiciones\ue000 de\ue000 trabajo\ue000 que\ue000 pueda\ue000 implicar\ue000 una\ue000 exposici\u00f3n\ue000 de\ue000 los\ue000 tra- bajadores.

4.4. Cola\ue000oraci\ue004\ue001 de la i\ue001specci\ue004\ue001 de
tra\ue000ajo
\ue000

El\ue000empleador\ue000o\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000gestante\ue000podr\u00e1n\ue000 solicitar\ue000la\ue000orientaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000la\ue000inspecci\u00f3n\ue000 de\ue000trabajo\ue000para\ue000la\ue000determinaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000los\ue000 riesgos\ue000que\ue000puedan\ue000a\ue001ectar\ue000la\ue000salud\ue000de\ue000 la\ue000trabajadora\ue000gestante\ue000o\ue000el\ue000ni\u00f1o.

4.5. Oport\ue002\ue001idad para la prese\ue001taci\ue004\ue001
de la solicit\ue002d
\ue000

El\ue000derecho\ue000a\ue000no\ue000realizar\ue000labores\ue000consi- deradas\ue000 riesgosas\ue000 puede\ue000 ser\ue000 ejercido\ue000 cuando\ue000se\ue000presente\ue000alguna\ue000de\ue000las\ue000situa- ciones\ue000mencionadas\ue000en\ue000el\ue000numeral\ue0004.1.,\ue000 ya\ue000sea\ue000al\ue000inicio\ue000o\ue000durante\ue000el\ue000per\u00edodo\ue000de\ue000 gestaci\u00f3n.

4.6. Co\ue001te\ue001ido del certifcado m\u00e9dico
\ue000

La\ue000trabajadora\ue000deber\u00e1\ue000solicitar\ue000a\ue000su\ue000em- pleador\ue000no\ue000realizar\ue000labores\ue000que\ue000pongan\ue000 en\ue000riesgo\ue000su\ue000salud\ue000o\ue000la\ue000del\ue000ni\u00f1o.\ue000A\ue000estos\ue000 e\ue001ectos,\ue000deber\u00e1\ue000presentar\ue000un\ue000certifcado\ue000 m\u00e9dico\ue000 el\ue000 cual\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000 contener\ue000 \ue000 la\ue000 siguiente\ue000in\ue001ormaci\u00f3n:

a.\ue000 Riesgos\ue000generados\ue000por\ue000las\ue000condicio- nes\ue000de\ue000trabajo\ue000durante\ue000el\ue000per\u00edodo\ue000de\ue000 gestaci\u00f3n.

\u2013\ue000 La\ue000acreditaci\u00f3n\ue000del\ue000estado\ue000de\ue000
gestaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000la\ue000trabajadora.
\u2013\ue000 El\ue000tiempo\ue000del\ue000estado\ue000de\ue000gesta-
ci\u00f3n.

b.\ue000 Riesgos\ue000 adicionales\ue000 derivados\ue000 de\ue000 los\ue000cambios\ue000fsiol\u00f3gicos\ue000en\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000 gestante.

\u2013\ue000 La\ue000acreditaci\u00f3n\ue000del\ue000estado\ue000de\ue000
gestaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000la\ue000trabajadora.
\u2013\ue000 El\ue000tiempo\ue000del\ue000estado\ue000de\ue000gesta-
ci\u00f3n.

\u2013\ue000\ue000 Las\ue000labores\ue000que\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000gestante\ue000 est\u00e1\ue000 impedida\ue000 de\ue000 realizar,\ue000 as\u00ed\ue000 como\ue000 el\ue000 tiempo\ue000 que\ue000 debe\ue000 man- tenerse\ue000 la\ue000 medida.\ue000 Dicho\ue000 plazo\ue000 puede\ue000ser\ue000ampliado\ue000o\ue000recortado\ue000 por\ue000 posteriores\ue000 certifcados\ue000 m\u00e9- dicos,\ue000en\ue000atenci\u00f3n\ue000a\ue000su\ue000estado\ue000de\ue000 salud.

\ue000 Cuando\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000realice\ue000labores\ue000 de\ue000 riesgo,\ue000 seg\u00fan\ue000 el\ue000 literal\ue000 a.\ue000 del\ue000 nu- meral\ue000 4.1.,\ue000 habi\u00e9ndose\ue000 acreditado\ue000 el\ue000 estado\ue000de\ue000gestaci\u00f3n\ue000en\ue000el\ue000certifcado\ue000 m\u00e9dico,\ue000 el\ue000 empleador\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000 proce- der\ue000a\ue000la\ue000modifcaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000las\ue000labores.

\ue000 De\ue000no\ue000haber\ue000realizado\ue000la\ue000evalua- ci\u00f3n\ue000 de\ue000 riesgos\ue000 a\ue000 que\ue000 se\ue000 refere\ue000 el\ue000 numeral\ue0004.3.,\ue000el\ue000empleador\ue000deber\u00e1\ue000 aplicar\ue000 directamente\ue000 los\ue000 listados\ue000 I\ue000 y\ue000 II\ue000 elaborados\ue000 por\ue000 la\ue000 Comisi\u00f3n\ue000 T\u00e9cnica\ue000 Multisectorial.\ue000 En\ue000 estos\ue000 casos,\ue000 el\ue000 empleador\ue000 s\u00f3lo\ue000 se\ue000 podr\u00e1\ue000 negar\ue000a\ue000la\ue000modifcaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000las\ue000labo- res,\ue000 despu\u00e9s\ue000 de\ue000 haberse\ue000 realizado\ue000 una\ue000 visita\ue000 inspectiva\ue000 del\ue000 servicio\ue000 de\ue000 Inspecci\u00f3n\ue000 del\ue000 Trabajo,\ue000 la\ue000 cual\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000 certifcar\ue000 la\ue000 no\ue000 existencia\ue000 de\ue000riesgos\ue000para\ue000la\ue000salud\ue000de\ue000la\ue000mujer\ue000 gestante\ue000y/o\ue000el\ue000desarrollo\ue000del\ue000\ue001eto\ue000y\ue000 el\ue000embri\u00f3n.

4.7. Pla\ue003o e\ue001 q\ue002e de\ue000e ser ate\ue001dida la
solicit\ue002d
\ue000

En\ue000 el\ue000 m\u00e1s\ue000 breve\ue000 plazo\ue000 de\ue000 recibida\ue000 la\ue000 solicitud,\ue000 el\ue000 empleador\ue000 debe\ue000 proceder\ue000 a\ue000 la\ue000 modifcaci\u00f3n\ue000 de\ue000 las\ue000 labores\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora.

\ue000

En\ue000caso\ue000de\ue000existir\ue000un\ue000riesgo\ue000inminente,\ue000 el\ue000empleador\ue000apartar\u00e1\ue000a\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000 de\ue000las\ue000labores\ue000que\ue000ocasionan\ue000el\ue000riesgo\ue000 a\ue000 su\ue000 salud\ue000 o\ue000 al\ue000 desarrollo\ue000 normal\ue000 del\ue000 embri\u00f3n\ue000y\ue000el\ue000\ue001eto,\ue000sin\ue000perjuicio\ue000de\ue000que\ue000 se\ue000atienda\ue000a\ue000su\ue000solicitud.

4.8. Asig\ue001aci\ue004\ue001 de la\ue000ores riesgosas
\ue000

El\ue000empleador\ue000teniendo\ue000como\ue000fn\ue000el\ue000asig- nar\ue000 labores\ue000 que\ue000 no\ue000 pongan\ue000 en\ue000 peligro\ue000 la\ue000 salud\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 y\ue000 del\ue000 ni\u00f1o,\ue000 podr\u00e1:

a.\ue000 Realizar\ue000cambios\ue000de\ue000manera\ue000que\ue000 no\ue000 a\ue001ecte\ue000 las\ue000 labores\ue000 que\ue000 ven\u00eda\ue000 realizando,\ue000es\ue000decir,\ue000sin\ue000modifcaci\u00f3n\ue000 del\ue000puesto\ue000de\ue000trabajo.\ue000Para\ue000ello,\ue000debe\ue000 adaptar\ue000 \ue001\u00edsica\ue000 o\ue000 t\u00e9cnicamente\ue000 las\ue000 condiciones\ue000de\ue000trabajo\ue000con\ue000la\ue000fnali- dad\ue000 de\ue000 controlar,\ue000 limitar\ue000 o\ue000 eliminar\ue000 los\ue000riesgos\ue000existentes.

BLACK
COLOR
2da. quincena, ENERO 2007
REVISTA DE ASESOR\u00cdA ESPECIALIZADAG\ue001
INFORMATIVO
CABALLERO BUSTAMANTE
Informe Especial

b.\ue000 En\ue000 caso\ue000 que\ue000 la\ue000 alternativa\ue000 anterior\ue000 no\ue000 \ue001uera\ue000 posible,\ue000 ya\ue000 sea\ue000 t\u00e9cnica\ue000 u\ue000 objetivamente,\ue000 o\ue000 no\ue000 resultara\ue000 ra- zonable\ue000 o\ue000 sufciente\ue000 para\ue000 controlar\ue000 los\ue000riesgos\ue000existentes,\ue000el\ue000empleador\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000modifcar\ue000las\ue000labores\ue000a\ue000trav\u00e9s\ue000 de\ue000un\ue000cambio\ue000de\ue000puesto\ue000de\ue000trabajo\ue000 a\ue000un\ue000puesto\ue000similar\ue000en\ue000atenci\u00f3n\ue000a\ue000su\ue000 categor\u00eda\ue000ocupacional.

c.\ue000 En\ue000el\ue000caso\ue000que\ue000no\ue000\ue001uera\ue000posible\ue000 asignar\ue000 labores\ue000 que\ue000 no\ue000 pongan\ue000 en\ue000 riesgo\ue000 la\ue000 salud\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 o\ue000 el\ue000 desarrollo\ue000 normal\ue000 del\ue000 embri\u00f3n\ue000 y\ue000 el\ue000 \ue001eto\ue000 dentro\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 categor\u00eda\ue000 ocu- pacional\ue000de\ue000\u00e9sta,\ue000de\ue000acuerdo\ue000con\ue000lo\ue000 previsto\ue000por\ue000el\ue000numeral\ue000precedente,\ue000 se\ue000le\ue000asignar\u00e1\ue000labores\ue000en\ue000un\ue000puesto\ue000 de\ue000trabajo\ue000perteneciente\ue000a\ue000una\ue000cate- gor\u00eda\ue000ocupacional\ue000distinta,\ue000sea\ue000\u00e9sta\ue000 in\ue001erior\ue000o\ue000superior.

\ue000

A\ue000trav\u00e9s\ue000de\ue000convenio\ue000colectivo\ue000se\ue000podr\u00e1\ue000 establecer\ue000la\ue000suspensi\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000las\ue000labores,\ue000 con\ue000 la\ue000 obligaci\u00f3n\ue000 del\ue000 empleador\ue000 de\ue000 pagar\ue000 un\ue000 monto\ue000 mensual\ue000 a\ue000 la\ue000 traba- jadora\ue000 que\ue000 no\ue000 podr\u00e1\ue000 ser\ue000 in\ue001erior\ue000 a\ue000 lo\ue000 que\ue000 le\ue000 corresponder\u00eda\ue000 como\ue000 subsidio\ue000 por\ue000 incapacidad\ue000 temporal,\ue000 en\ue000 caso\ue000 las\ue000 medidas\ue000 anteriormente\ue000 descritas\ue000 \ue000 no\ue000 sean\ue000 posibles\ue000 de\ue000 ejecutar\ue000 o\ue000 no\ue000 sean\ue000 sufcientes\ue000 para\ue000 controlar\ue000 los\ue000 riesgos\ue000 existentes.

4.9. Ma\ue001te\ue001imie\ue001to de los derechos
\ue000

La\ue000 asignaci\u00f3n\ue000 de\ue000 las\ue000 nuevas\ue000 labores\ue000 que\ue000no\ue000pongan\ue000en\ue000riesgo\ue000la\ue000salud\ue000de\ue000la\ue000 mujer\ue000 gestante\ue000 o\ue000 el\ue000 desarrollo\ue000 normal\ue000 del\ue000embri\u00f3n\ue000y\ue000el\ue000\ue001eto,\ue000a\ue000trav\u00e9s\ue000de\ue000cual- quiera\ue000de\ue000las\ue000medidas\ue000se\u00f1aladas\ue000en\ue000el\ue000 numeral\ue0004.8.,\ue000no\ue000a\ue001ectar\u00e1\ue000los\ue000derechos\ue000 laborales,\ue000econ\u00f3micos\ue000o\ue000pro\ue001esionales\ue000 de\ue000la\ue000trabajadora.

\u2013\ue000 En\ue000caso\ue000que\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000se\ue000man- tenga\ue000en\ue000su\ue000puesto\ue000o\ue000sea\ue000cambiada\ue000 a\ue000otro\ue000puesto\ue000de\ue000su\ue000misma\ue000categor\u00eda\ue000 ocupacional,\ue000mantendr\u00e1\ue000los\ue000mismos\ue000 derechos\ue000 laborales,\ue000 econ\u00f3micos\ue000 y\ue000 pro\ue001esionales.

\u2013\ue000 Asimismo,\ue000mantendr\u00e1\ue000los\ue000derechos\ue000 que\ue000dependan\ue000del\ue000cargo\ue000\ue000a\u00fan\ue000cuan- do\ue000haya\ue000sido\ue000cambiada\ue000a\ue000un\ue000puesto\ue000 de\ue000trabajo\ue000de\ue000una\ue000categor\u00eda\ue000o\ue000grupo\ue000 ocupacional\ue000in\ue001erior.

\u2013\ue000 En\ue000el\ue000caso\ue000contrario,\ue000es\ue000decir,\ue000 cuando\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 haya\ue000 sido\ue000 cambiada\ue000a\ue000un\ue000puesto\ue000de\ue000trabajo\ue000de\ue000 una\ue000categor\u00eda\ue000o\ue000grupo\ue000ocupacional\ue000 superior\ue000al\ue000de\ue000su\ue000puesto\ue000de\ue000origen,\ue000 tendr\u00e1\ue000derecho\ue000a\ue000recibir\ue000los\ue000montos\ue000 adicionales\ue000 por\ue000 desempe\u00f1ar\ue000 ese\ue000 puesto.\ue000 Sin\ue000 embargo,\ue000 concluida\ue000 la\ue000 situaci\u00f3n\ue000que\ue000dio\ue000origen\ue000al\ue000cambio\ue000 de\ue000 labores,\ue000 la\ue000 trabajadora\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000 retornar\ue000a\ue000su\ue000puesto\ue000habitual\ue000en\ue000las\ue000 condiciones\ue000originales,\ue000sin\ue000que\ue000\u00e9sta\ue000 pueda\ue000 alegar\ue000 hostilidad\ue000 en\ue000 los\ue000 t\u00e9r- minos\ue000 se\u00f1alados\ue000 en\ue000 la\ue000 legislaci\u00f3n\ue000 vigente.

4.10. Retor\ue001o a las la\ue000ores de orige\ue001
\ue000

Se\ue000garantiza\ue000a\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000gestante\ue000 el\ue000 derecho\ue000 de\ue000 retornar\ue000 a\ue000 las\ue000 labores\ue000 y,\ue000 en\ue000 lo\ue000 posible,\ue000 al\ue000 puesto\ue000 que\ue000 ven\u00eda\ue000 desempe\u00f1ando,\ue000o\ue000a\ue000uno\ue000equivalente,\ue000 con\ue000la\ue000misma\ue000remuneraci\u00f3n\ue000y\ue000dem\u00e1s\ue000 derechos.

\ue000

De\ue000 esta\ue000 manera,\ue000 el\ue000 empleador\ue000 se\ue000 encuentra\ue000 obligado\ue000 a\ue000 retornar\ue000 a\ue000 la\ue000 tra- bajadora\ue000 a\ue000 sus\ue000 labores\ue000 originarias\ue000 una\ue000 vez\ue000concluida\ue000la\ue000situaci\u00f3n\ue000que\ue000dio\ue000origen\ue000 al\ue000 cambio\ue000 de\ue000 labores,\ue000 en\ue000 un\ue000 plazo\ue000 que\ue000 no\ue000superar\u00e1\ue000los\ue00015\ue000d\u00edas\ue000naturales\ue000o,\ue000con\ue000 posterioridad\ue000del\ue000parto,\ue000inmediatamente\ue000 a\ue000su\ue000retorno\ue000al\ue000centro\ue000de\ue000trabajo\ue000culmi- nado\ue000su\ue000descanso\ue000post\ue000natal.

\ue000

De\ue000no\ue000cumplirse\ue000con\ue000esta\ue000obligaci\u00f3n,\ue000 la\ue000trabajadora\ue000podr\u00e1\ue000accionar\ue000por\ue000ac- tos\ue000de\ue000hostilidad,\ue000seg\u00fan\ue000lo\ue000establecido\ue000 en\ue000la\ue000legislaci\u00f3n\ue000vigente,\ue000sin\ue000perjuicio\ue000 de\ue000las\ue000sanciones\ue000que\ue000puedan\ue000ser\ue000im- puestas\ue000por\ue000el\ue000servicio\ue000de\ue000Inspecci\u00f3n\ue000 del\ue000Trabajo.

4.11. I\ue001c\ue002mplimie\ue001to del empleador
\ue000

En\ue000caso\ue000el\ue000empleador\ue000no\ue000cumpla\ue000con\ue000 asignar\ue000a\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000gestante\ue000labo- res\ue000que\ue000no\ue000pongan\ue000en\ue000riesgo\ue000su\ue000salud\ue000 y\ue000 la\ue000 del\ue000 ni\u00f1o,\ue000 \u00e9sta\ue000 podr\u00e1\ue000 interrumpir\ue000 su\ue000 actividad\ue000 laboral,\ue000 sin\ue000 perjuicio\ue000 de\ue000 cumplir\ue000 con\ue000 sus\ue000 dem\u00e1s\ue000 obligaciones\ue000 laborales,\ue000 siempre\ue000 que\ue000 razonable- mente\ue000considere\ue000que\ue000existe\ue000un\ue000peligro\ue000 inminente\ue000 que\ue000 ponga\ue000 en\ue000 riesgo\ue000 su\ue000 salud\ue000 o\ue000 seguridad,\ue000 sin\ue000 su\ue001rir\ue000 perjuicio\ue000 alguno\ue000en\ue000sus\ue000derechos\ue000laborales.\ue000Para\ue000 ello\ue000deber\u00e1\ue000comunicar\ue000a\ue000su\ue000empleador\ue000 que\ue000no\ue000realizar\u00e1\ue000las\ue000labores\ue000que\ue000le\ue000oca- sionan\ue000 un\ue000 riesgo\ue000 en\ue000 su\ue000 salud\ue000 y\ue000 la\ue000 del\ue000 ni\u00f1o\ue000 hasta\ue000 que\ue000 se\ue000 le\ue000 asignen\ue000 labores\ue000 que\ue000no\ue000perjudiquen\ue000su\ue000estado.

\ue000

Una\ue000vez\ue000asignadas\ue000las\ue000nuevas\ue000labores\ue000 que\ue000no\ue000supongan\ue000un\ue000riesgo\ue000en\ue000su\ue000sa- lud,\ue000la\ue000trabajadora\ue000deber\u00e1\ue000cumplir\ue000con\ue000 las\ue000nuevas\ue000labores\ue000encomendadas,\ue000de\ue000 manera\ue000inmediata.

4.12. Disposicio\ue001es especiales

En\ue000el\ue000Reglamento\ue000se\ue000se\u00f1al\u00f3\ue000que\ue000una Comisi\u00f3n\ue000 T\u00e9cnica\ue000 Multisectorial\ue000 se\ue000 encargar\u00e1\ue000 de\ue000 elaborar\ue000 un\ue000 listado\ue000 de\ue000 los\ue000 agentes\ue000 \ue001\u00edsicos,\ue000 qu\u00edmicos,\ue000 biol\u00f3- gicos,\ue000 ergon\u00f3micos\ue000 y\ue000 psicosociales\ue000 que\ue000 generan\ue000 riesgos\ue000 para\ue000 la\ue000 salud\ue000 de\ue000 la\ue000 mujer\ue000 gestante\ue000 o\ue000 el\ue000 desarrollo\ue000 normal\ue000 del\ue000 embri\u00f3n\ue000 y\ue000 el\ue000 \ue001eto,\ue000 sus\ue000 correspondientes\ue000intensidades,\ue000con- centraciones\ue000 o\ue000 niveles\ue000 de\ue000 presencia\ue000 y\ue000 los\ue000 per\u00edodos\ue000 en\ue000 los\ue000 que\ue000 a\ue001ecta\ue000 el\ue000 embarazo,\ue000 listado\ue000 de\ue000 actividades,\ue000 procesos,\ue000 operaciones\ue000 o\ue000 labores,\ue000 equipos\ue000 o\ue000 productos\ue000 de\ue000 alto\ue000 riesgo,\ue000 y\ue000lineamientos\ue000para\ue000que\ue000las\ue000empresas\ue000 puedan\ue000realizar\ue000la\ue000evaluaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000sus\ue000 riesgos.\ue000 Hasta\ue000 que\ue000 no\ue000 se\ue000 publiquen\ue000 \u00e9stas,\ue000 los\ue000 empleadores\ue000 tomar\u00e1n\ue000 como\ue000 re\ue001erencia\ue000 los\ue000 Listados\ue000 I\ue000 y\ue000 II,\ue000

los\ue000cuales\ue000recogen\ue000el\ue000contenido\ue000per- tinente\ue000de\ue000los\ue000anexos\ue000de\ue000la\ue000Directiva\ue000 92/85/\ue000CEE\ue000de\ue000la\ue000Uni\u00f3n\ue000Europea.

LISTADO I

Actividades\ue000 en\ue000 las\ue000 cuales\ue000 deber\u00e1\ue000 determinarse\ue000 la\ue000 naturaleza,\ue000el\ue000grado\ue000y\ue000la\ue000duraci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000la\ue000exposici\u00f3n\ue000 para\ue000 evaluar\ue000 su\ue000 repercusi\u00f3n\ue000 sobre\ue000 el\ue000 embarazo\ue000 y\ue000 las\ue000medidas\ue000a\ue000adoptarse.

l.\ue000 Agentes\ue000\ue001\u00edsicos,\ue000cuando\ue000se\ue000considere\ue000que\ue000puedan\ue000
implicar\ue000lesiones\ue000\ue001etales\ue000o\ue000provocar\ue000un\ue000despren-
dimiento\ue000de\ue000la\ue000placenta,\ue000en\ue000particular:
1.\ue000 Choques,\ue000vibraciones\ue000o\ue000movimientos.
2.\ue000 Manutenci\u00f3n\ue000manual\ue000de\ue000cargas\ue000pesadas\ue000que\ue000su-
pongan\ue000riesgos,\ue000en\ue000particular\ue000dorsolumbares.
3.\ue000\ue000 Ruido.

4.\ue000 Radiaciones\ue000ionizantes.
5.\ue000 Radiaciones\ue000no\ue000ionizantes.
6.\ue000 Fr\u00edo\ue000y\ue000calor\ue000extremos.

7.\ue000 Movimientos\ue000y\ue000posturas,\ue000desplazamientos\ue000 (tanto\ue000en\ue000el\ue000interior\ue000como\ue000en\ue000el\ue000exterior\ue000del\ue000 establecimiento),\ue000 \ue001atiga\ue000 mental\ue000 y\ue000 \ue001\u00edsica\ue000 y\ue000 otras\ue000cargas\ue000\ue001\u00edsicas\ue000vinculadas\ue000a\ue000la\ue000actividad\ue000 de\ue000la\ue000trabajadora.

II.\ue000\ue000Agentes\ue000biol\u00f3gicos,\ue000en\ue000la\ue000medida\ue000en\ue000que\ue000se\ue000sepa\ue000 que\ue000 dichos\ue000 agentes\ue000 o\ue000 las\ue000 medidas\ue000 terap\u00e9uticas\ue000 que\ue000 necesariamente\ue000 traen\ue000 consigo\ue000 ponen\ue000 en\ue000 peligro\ue000 la\ue000 salud\ue000 de\ue000 las\ue000 mujeres\ue000 embarazadas,\ue000 y\ue000 siempre\ue000que\ue000no\ue000fguren\ue000todav\u00eda\ue000en\ue000el\ue000Listado\ue000II.

1.\ue000 Agente\ue000biol\u00f3gico\ue000del\ue000grupo\ue0002:\ue000un\ue000agente\ue000 pat\u00f3geno\ue000que\ue000pueda\ue000causar\ue000una\ue000en\ue001ermedad\ue000 en\ue000 el\ue000 hombre\ue000 y\ue000 pueda\ue000 suponer\ue000 un\ue000 peligro\ue000 para\ue000los\ue000trabajadores;\ue000es\ue000poco\ue000probable\ue000que\ue000 se\ue000propague\ue000a\ue000la\ue000colectividad;\ue000existen\ue000gene- ralmente\ue000proflaxis\ue000o\ue000tratamiento\ue000efcaces.

2.\ue000 Agente\ue000biol\u00f3gico\ue000del\ue000grupo\ue0003:\ue000un\ue000agente\ue000 pat\u00f3geno\ue000que\ue000pueda\ue000causar\ue000una\ue000en\ue001ermedad\ue000 grave\ue000 en\ue000 el\ue000 hombre\ue000 y\ue000 presente\ue000 un\ue000 serio\ue000 peligro\ue000para\ue000los\ue000trabajadores;\ue000existe\ue000el\ue000ries- go\ue000 de\ue000 que\ue000 se\ue000 propague\ue000 en\ue000 la\ue000 colectividad,\ue000 pero\ue000 existen\ue000 generalmente\ue000 una\ue000 proflaxis\ue000 o\ue000 tratamiento\ue000efcaces.

3.\ue000 Agente\ue000biol\u00f3gico\ue000del\ue000grupo\ue0004:\ue000un\ue000agente\ue000 pat\u00f3geno\ue000que\ue000cause\ue000una\ue000en\ue001ermedad\ue000grave\ue000 en\ue000el\ue000hombre\ue000y\ue000suponga\ue000un\ue000serio\ue000peligro\ue000para\ue000 los\ue000trabajadores;\ue000existen\ue000muchas\ue000probabilida- des\ue000 de\ue000 que\ue000 se\ue000 propague\ue000 en\ue000 la\ue000 colectividad;\ue000 no\ue000existen\ue000generalmente\ue000una\ue000proflaxis\ue000o\ue000un\ue000 tratamiento\ue000efcaces.

III.\ue000Agentes\ue000qu\u00edmicos\ue000en\ue000la\ue000medida\ue000en\ue000que\ue000se\ue000sepa\ue000 que\ue000 ponen\ue000 en\ue000 peligro\ue000 la\ue000 salud\ue000 de\ue000 las\ue000 mujeres\ue000 embarazadas\ue000y\ue000del\ue000ni\u00f1o\ue000a\u00fan\ue000no\ue000nacido\ue000y\ue000siempre\ue000 que\ue000no\ue000fguren\ue000todav\u00eda\ue000en\ue000el\ue000Listado\ue000II:

1.\ue000 Las\ue000sustancias\ue000etiquetadas\ue000R\ue00040,\ue000R\ue00045,\ue000R\ue00046\ue000y\ue000 R\ue00047\ue000en\ue000la\ue000medida\ue000en\ue000que\ue000no\ue000fguren\ue000todav\u00eda\ue000 en\ue000el\ue000Listado\ue000ll.

2.\ue000 Fabricaci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000auramina.

3.\ue000 Trabajos\ue000que\ue000supongan\ue000exposici\u00f3n\ue000a\ue000los\ue000 hidrocarburos\ue000 arom\u00e1ticos\ue000 polic\u00edclicos\ue000 pre- sentes\ue000 en\ue000 el\ue000 holl\u00edn,\ue000 el\ue000 alquitr\u00e1n,\ue000 la\ue000 brea,\ue000 el\ue000 humo\ue000o\ue000los\ue000polvos\ue000de\ue000la\ue000hulla.

4.\ue000 Trabajos\ue000que\ue000supongan\ue000exposici\u00f3n\ue000al\ue000polvo,\ue000 al\ue000humo\ue000o\ue000a\ue000las\ue000nieblas\ue000producidas\ue000durante\ue000 la\ue000 calcinaci\u00f3n\ue000 y\ue000 el\ue000 afnado\ue000 el\u00e9ctrico\ue000 de\ue000 las\ue000 matas\ue000de\ue000n\u00edquel.

5.\ue000 Procedimiento\ue000con\ue000\u00e1cido\ue000\ue001uerte\ue000en\ue000la\ue000\ue001abri-
caci\u00f3n\ue000de\ue000alcohol\ue000isoprop\u00edlico.

6.\ue000 Mercurio\ue000y\ue000derivados.
7.\ue000 Medicamentos\ue000antimit\u00f3ticos.
8.\ue000 Mon\u00f3xido\ue000de\ue000carbono.

9.\ue000 Agentes\ue000qu\u00edmicos\ue000peligrosos\ue000de\ue000penetraci\u00f3n\ue000
cut\u00e1nea\ue000\ue001ormal.
IV.\ue000Procedimientos,\ue000procedimientos\ue000industriales\ue000que\ue000
fguran\ue000en\ue000los\ue000puntos\ue0002\ue000a\ue0005\ue000del\ue000punto\ue000III.
V.\ue000 Condiciones\ue000de\ue000trabajo
\ue000 1.\ue000Trabajos\ue000de\ue000miner\u00eda\ue000subterr\u00e1neos.

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