Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
14Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
K

K

Ratings: (0)|Views: 502|Likes:
Published by api-3695828

More info:

Published by: api-3695828 on Oct 14, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

April 2000
Some Notes on Japanese Grammar
Keith Smillie

No claim is made for either originality or completeness in these notes. Most of the examples have been taken from, or have been suggested by, the references given at the end. The topics chosen are those which may benefit a person who is beginning to study Japanese and who would like a quick reference to supplement more complete and authoritative sources.

Table of Contents

Word Order
Nouns
Pronouns
Demonstratives and Interrogatives
Particles

Verbs
Introduction
Present and past polite forms
Expressing "to be"
Uses ofd esh \u00f4
Present and past plain forms
The gerund or-te form
Progressive tense
Desiderative form
Passive form
Causative form
Conditional form

Giving and receiving
Starting an action

Nominalization
Adjectives
Describing nouns
Adverbs
Comparisons
Numbers
Specific Time
Relative Time
Counters
Calendar
Family
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix. A few verbs

2
Word Order
Japanese is a Subject-Object-Verb language as compared with English which is a Subject-
Verb-Object language.
Torako wa neko desu.
Torako is a cat. (Literally, \u201cTorako as for cat is.\u201d)
Torako ga nezumi o mimashita.
Torako saw a mouse (Literally, \u201cTorako [subject] mouse [object] saw.\u201d)
A sentence is made into a question by placing the particleka at the end.
Torako ga nezumi o mimashita ka.
Did Torako see a mouse?
Nouns

Japanese nouns do not have gender, they may not be modified by definite or indefinite articles because none exist in Japanese, and the singular and plural forms are usually the same. In romaji the names of persons and places are capitalized as are the names of languages except English (eigo).

hon
book, books, a book, the book, the books
For nouns referring to people, the suffix-tach i may be used to indicate the plural.
kodomochild, children
kodomotachichildren
Tanaka san tachi
Mr. Tanaka and his family or others
Japanese give the family name first followed by the given name.
Tanaka Hiromi
Hiromi Tanaka
The suffix-ya means the store where the objects are sold or the person who sells them. The
suffix-k a means a person who is is an expert or specialist in the designated subject.
hanaflower
hanaya
flower shop, florist
nikumeat
nikuya
butcher shop, butcher
sh\u00f4setsunovel
sh\u00f4setsuka
novelist
When referring to a clerk or shopkeeper, the honorificsan is used.
3
honya san
bookstore clerk, bookseller
Two nouns used together as a compound noun are joined by the particleno.
nihongo no kurasu
Japanese language class
ap\u00e2to no biru
apartment building
Pronouns
watashiI, me
watashitachiwe, us
anata
you
anatatachi
you
kare
he, him
karera
they, them
kanojo
she, her
kanojotachithey, them
ano hitothat person
ano hitotachithose persons
Avoid usinganata whenever possible, and use the person\ue000s name withsan instead.
Similarly, when referring to a third person, use the person\ue000s name.
Sumisu san wa eigo o mimashita ka.
Did you (Mr. Smith) see the movie?
Tanaka san wa nani o kaimashita ka.
What did she (Mrs. Tanaka) buy?
The indefinite pronouns are the following:
dareka
someone
daremono one
doreka
something
doremonothing
dokakasomewhere
dokomonowhere
nanika
something
nanimonothing
ikurakasome, a little
ikuramonot much
nandemoanything
nannimonothing
The negative indefinite pronouns take a negative verb.
Dareka kimashita.
Someone came.
Daremo kimasen deshita.
No one came.
The one reflexive pronoun isjib u n (myself, yourself, etc.).
Jibun de hatarakimasu.
I am working by myself.

Activity (14)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Tiana Mampionona liked this
Esohr liked this
naddan liked this
runnymede1 liked this
Shizzle MyNizzle liked this
somehi liked this
turitoramos liked this
ganeshl08 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->