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Published by alicewincdf

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Published by: alicewincdf on Sep 19, 2011
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The enzymes are large protein molecules made up of long chain amino acids , which are produced by living cells in plants , animals and microorganisms , such asbacteria and fungi.Advantages of enzymes over conventional chemicalsEnzyme technology is fast growing and emerging field of science , which has found innumerable applications in the textile wet processing. Since enzymes are natural products , they are easily biodegradable , non polluting , cleaner, gentle ,non aggressive with minimum damage to substrate and environment. Enzymes promised a cleaner and environment friendly future by having the capacity and potential to enable us to live harmoniously with the nature.ENZYMES IN TEXTILES PROCESSINGThe processing of textiles is being done chemically, whether it is pretreatmentdyeing , after treatment or finishing . The chemicals and conditions used oftenharsh and harmful to the substrate and some times degrade it also. These chemicals increase the pollution load in air and water, thus creating problems in the treatment and disposal of effluents as well as sludgedisposal. Enzymes in textileindustry are used due to following reasons,a. They accelerate the reaction ratesEnzymes acts as catalysts and speed up a particular chemical reaction by lowering activation energy for a reaction. The reaction rates are very fast when takesplace in the presence of suitable enzymes.b. They are specificone particular enzyme will only catalyze a specific reaction under standard conditions such as time ,temperature, and pH and on only one or few substrates.c. They operate under milder conditionsmost enzymes have a maximum activity at an optimum temperature and pH conditionsand most of the enzyme assisted reaction takes place under milder reaction conditions such as temperature ,pH and pressure.d. They are safe and easy to controlenzymes perform well in the normal pH and temperature conditions , that too in the milder conditions such as concentration. When no longer required these are deactivated by changing the conditions such as pH and temperature. Most of the enzymes , being natural products are biodegradable and converted into natural products after disposal.e. They replace harsher chemicalswhen used , enzymes catalyze the reaction rates at milder conditions , they replace the excessively used harsher , toxic and non biodegradable chemicals. The reaction conditions are also milder instead of extreme concentrations, temperatureand pressure.f. They are eco friendly and biodegradableSince enzymes are protein molecules , they are degraded by other proteolyses enzymes secreted by micro organisms to amino acids , which are natural products andre enter the food chain.Types of enzymes
All the enzymes used in textile industry can be classified into 6 basic enzyme classes, based on the type of chemical reaction they catalyze, these are1.HydrolasesThese are the enzymes that catalyse a hydrolysis reaction .Examples of hydrolases are cellulase ,proteases, amylases and lipases. They target substrate and physically modify the fiber itself, and degrade textile auxiliary and impurities.2.LyasesThese are enzymes that catalyse the separation of two parts of molecules with the formation of double bond with one or the other. Lysase make additional textileimpurities susceptible to enzyme attack.3.OxidoreductasesThese are the enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of the one compound with thereduction of the other. Examples are dehydrogenases, oxidases,laccases ,peroxidases and catalases.4.TransferasesThese enzymes catalyse the transfer of a functional group from one (donor) molecule to another (acceptor) molecule.5.IsomerasesIsomerases are enzymes that catalyse the structural rearrangements of isomers .6.LigasesThese are the enzymes that catalyse the reactions which make bonds to join together smaller molecules into bigger molecules.New classes of enzymes that under research , for the application into textile processing arePolyesterasesFor the application on polyester to improve the undesirable properties of polyester textiles under mild conditions, such as pilling, hydrophilicity, cationic dye absorption and binding, removal of polyester size , delusturing and improvingoil stain resistance.Nitralase,nytrile hydratase and amidaseThese are the nitrile degrading enzymes for the degradation of nitrile groups for modification of acrylic fiber, to improve its undesirable properties . Use of enzymes in different textile processing applications1. Bio singeing2. Desizing.3.enzymatic back stain clean up.
4.denim washing5.non denim fabric finishing6. biopolishing7.bio scouring8.bio bleaching.9.peroxide killing.10.degumming of silk11.modification of wool fiber.12.print washing13.after treatment ( washing off ) of dyed goods.14.waste water and effluent decolrisation and treatment.15.wool and silk scouring.16.wool bio carbonizing17.shrink resist treatment of wool fiber.18.to improve undesirable properties of polyester.19.to improve undesirable properties of acrylic. Description of common enzymatic treatment in textilesAmylases :-Thermo stable amylase 70-1100CpH 6.0-6.8Conventional amylase 50-700CpH 6.0-6.8Low temperature amylase 30-700CpH 6.0-6.8To remove starch based sizes , these are specific to starches without affectingthe substrate.Cellulases :-acid cellulases 30-600CpH 3.8-5.8Neutral cellulase 40-550C

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