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ThermoSolutions CHAPTER04

ThermoSolutions CHAPTER04

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4-1
Chapter 4ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CLOSED SYSTEMS
Moving Boundary Work
4-1C
It represents the boundary work for quasi-equilibrium processes.
4-2C
Yes.
4-3C
The area under the process curve, and thus the boundary work done, is greater in the constant pressure case.
4-4C
1kPam1k(N/m)m1kNm1
323
J
4-5
Apiston-cylinderdevicecontainsnitrogengas at a specified state. The boundary work is to bedetermined for the polytropic expansion of nitrogen.
 Properties
The gas constant for nitrogen is 0.2968 kJ/kg.K (Table A-2).
 Analysis
The mass and volume of nitrogen at the initial state arekg07802.0 K)27320kJ/kg.K)(12968.0( )mkPa)(0.07(130
3111
 RT  P m
V  
33222
m08637.0 kPa100K)273/kg.K)(100kPa.mkg)(0.296807802.0(
 P mRT 
V  
N
2
130 kPa120
C
The polytropic index is determined from249.1)m37kPa)(0.086(100)mkPa)(0.07(130
332211
      
n P  P 
nnnn
V  V  
The boundary work is determined from
kJ1.86
249.11 )mkPa)(0.07(130)m37kPa)(0.086(100 1
331122
n P  P 
b
V  V  
 
4-2
4-6
Apiston-cylinderdevice with a set of stops contains steam at a specified state. Now, the steam iscooled. The compression work for two cases and the final temperature are to be determined.
 Analysis
(a) The specific volumes for the initial and final states are (Table A-6)/kgm23275.0 C250MPa1/kgm30661.0 C400MPa1
32223111
 P  P Q
Steam0.3 kg1 MPa400
C
 Noting that pressure is constant during the process, the boundarywork is determined from
kJ22.16
/kgm)23275.030661.0kPa)(kg)(10003.0()(
321
mP 
b
(b) The volume of the cylinder at the final state is 60% ofinitialvolume. Then, the boundary work becomes
kJ36.79
/kgm)30661.060.030661.0kPa)(kg)(10003.0()60.0(
311
mP 
b
The temperature at the final state is(Table A-5)
C151.8
2322
/kgm)30661.060.0( MPa5.0
 P 
4-7
A piston-cylinder device contains nitrogen gas ataspecifiedstate.Thefinal temperature and the boundary work are to be determined for theisentropic expansion of nitrogen.
N
2
130 kPa120
C
 Properties
The properties of nitrogen are
 R
= 0.2968 kJ/kg.K ,
= 1.4(Table A-2a)
 Analysis
The mass and the final volume of nitrogen arekg07802.0 K)27320kJ/kg.K)(12968.0( )mkPa)(0.07(130
3111
 RT  P m
V  
324.124.13 2211
m08443.0kPa)(100)mkPa)(0.07(130
      
V  V  V  V  
 P  P 
The final temperature and the boundary work are determined as
K364.6
/kg.K)kPa.mkg)(0.296807802.0( )m43kPa)(0.084(100
33222
mR P 
V  
kJ1.64
4.11 )mkPa)(0.07(130)m43kPa)(0.084(100 1
331122
 P  P 
b
V  V  
 
4-3
4-8
Saturated water vapor in a cylinder is heated at constant pressureuntilitstemperaturerisestoaspecified value. The boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
 Assumptions
The process is quasi-equilibrium.
 Properties
 Notingthatthepressureremainsconstant during this process, the specific volumes at the initialand the final states are (Table A-4 through A-6)/kgm.716430 C200kPa003/kgm0.60582vapor Sat.kPa300
32223kPa300@1 1
 P  P 
 g 
 Analysis
The boundary work is determined from its definition to be
kJ165.9
    
 
331212 21out,
mkPa1kJ1/kgm0.60582)43kPa)(0.716kg)(300(5 )()(
V  V  V  
mP  P  P 
b
21
V  
(kPa
300
 Discussion
The positive sign indicates that work is done by the system (work output).
4-9
Refrigerant-134a in a cylinder is heated at constant pressure untilits temperature rises to a specifiedvalue. The boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
 Assumptions
The process is quasi-equilibrium.
 Properties
 Notingthatthepressureremainsconstant during this process, the specific volumes at the initialand the final states are (Table A-11 through A-13)/kgm0.027413C07kPa009/kgm0.0008580liquidSat.kPa009
32223kPa009@1 1
 P  P 
 f 
(kPa)
21
900
 Analysis
The boundary work is determined from its definition to bekg233.1/kgm0.0008580m0.2
3311
V  
m
and
kJ5571
    
 
331212 21out,
mkPa1kJ1/kgm0.0008580)413kPa)(0.027kg)(900(233.1 )()(
V  V  V  
mP  P  P 
b
 Discussion
The positive sign indicates that work is done by the system (work output).

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