Chapter 5MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROLVOLUMES
Conservation of Mass
Mass,energy, momentum, and electric charge are conserved, and volume and entropy are notconserved during a process.
Mass flow rate is the amount of mass flowing throughacross-sectionperunittimewhereasthevolume flow rate is the amount of volume flowing through a cross-section per unit time.
The amount of mass or energy entering a control volume does nothavetobeequaltotheamountof mass or energy leaving during an unsteady-flow process.
Flow through a control volume is steady when it involves no changes with time atanyspecified position.
No,aflowwiththesame volume flow rate at the inlet and the exit is not necessarily steady (unlessthe density is constant). To be steady, the mass flow rate through the device must remain constant.
Agardenhoseisused to fill a water bucket. The volume and mass flow rates of water, the fillingtime, and the discharge velocity are to be determined.
Water is an incompressible substance.
Flow through the hose is steady.
There is nowaste of water by splashing.
We take the density of water to be 62.4 lbm/ft
) The volume and mass flow rates of water are
V D AV
) The time it takes to fill a 20-gallon bucket is
) The average discharge velocity of water at the nozzle exit is
Notethatforagivenflowrate,the average velocity is inversely proportional to the square of the velocity. Therefore, when the diameter is reduced by half, the velocity quadruples.