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Calculus_Anton_ch11

# Calculus_Anton_ch11

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10/17/2011

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447
CHAPTER 11
Analytic Geometry in Calculus
EXERCISE SET 11.1
1.
(1,

6
)(3,

3
)(4,

e
)(–1,

r
)0
p
/
2
(5,

8
)(–6, –
p
)
2.
(

,
L
)
32
0
p
/
2
(
3,

i
)(
5,

@
)(2,

\$
)(0,
c
)(2,

)
3. (a)
(3
3
,
3)
(b)
(
7
/
2
,
7
3
/
2)
(c)
(3
3
,
3)
(d)
(0
,
0)
(e)
(
7
3
/
2
,
7
/
2)
(f)
(
5
,
0)
4. (a)
(
4
2
,
4
2)
(b)
(7
2
/
2
,
7
2
/
2)
(c)
(4
2
,
4
2)
(d)
(5
,
0)
(e)
(0
,
2)
(f)
(0
,
0)
5. (a)
both (5
,π
)
(b)
(4
,
11
π/
6)
,
(4
,
π/
6)
(c)
(2
,
3
π/
2)
,
(2
,
π/
2)
(d)
(8
2
,
5
π/
4)
,
(8
2
,
3
π/
4)
(e)
both (6
,
2
π/
3)
(f)
both (
2
,π/
4)
6. (a)
(2
,
5
π/
6)
(b)
(
2
,
11
π/
6)
(c)
(2
,
7
π/
6)
(d)
(
2
,
π/
6)
7. (a)
(5
,
0
.
6435)
(b)
(
29
,
5
.
0929)
(c)
(1
.
2716
,
0
.
6658)
8. (a)
(5
,
2
.
2143)
(b)
(3
.
4482
,
2
.
6260)
(c)
(

4 +
π
2
/
36
,
0
.
2561)
9. (a)
r
2
=
x
2
+
y
2
= 4; circle
(b)
y
= 4; horizontal line
(c)
r
2
= 3
r
cos
θ
,
x
2
+
y
2
= 3
x
, (
x
3
/
2)
2
+
y
2
= 9
/
4; circle
(d)
3
r
cos
θ
+ 2
r
sin
θ
= 6, 3
x
+ 2
y
= 6; line
10. (a)
r
cos
θ
= 5,
x
= 5; vertical line
(b)
r
2
= 2
r
sin
θ
,
x
2
+
y
2
= 2
y
,
x
2
+ (
y
1)
2
= 1; circle
(c)
r
2
= 4
r
cos
θ
+ 4
r
sin
θ, x
2
+
y
2
= 4
x
+ 4
y,
(
x
2)
2
+ (
y
2)
2
= 8; circle
(d)
r
=1cos
θ
sin
θ
cos
θ
,
r
cos
2
θ
= sin
θ
,
r
2
cos
2
θ
=
r
sin
θ
,
x
2
=
y
; parabola
11. (a)
r
cos
θ
= 7
(b)
r
= 3
(c)
r
2
6
r
sin
θ
= 0,
r
= 6sin
θ
(d)
4(
r
cos
θ
)(
r
sin
θ
) = 9, 4
r
2
sin
θ
cos
θ
= 9,
r
2
sin2
θ
= 9
/
2
12. (a)
r
sin
θ
=
3
(b)
r
=
5
(c)
r
2
+ 4
r
cos
θ
= 0,
r
=
4cos
θ
(d)
r
4
cos
2
θ
=
r
2
sin
2
θ
,
r
2
= tan
2
θ
,
r
= tan
θ

448 Chapter 11
13.
0
p
/
2
-3-333
r
= 3sin2
θ
14.
-33-2.252.25
r
= 2cos3
θ
15.
0
p
/
2
-4 4-1
r
= 3
4sin3
θ
16.
0
p
/
2
r
= 2 + 2sin
θ
17. (a)
r
= 5
(b)
(
x
3)
2
+
y
2
= 9
, r
= 6cos
θ
(c)
Example 6,
r
= 1
cos
θ
18. (a)
From (8-9),
r
=
a
±
b
sin
θ
or
r
=
a
±
b
cos
θ
. The curve is not symmetric about the
y
-axis,so Theorem 11.2.1(a) eliminates the sine function, thus
r
=
a
±
b
cos
θ
. The cartesian point(
3
,
0) is either the polar point (3
,π
) or (
3
,
0), and the cartesian point (
1
,
0) is eitherthe polar point (1
,π
) or (
1
,
0). A solution is
a
= 1
,b
=
2; we may take the equation as
r
= 1
2cos
θ
.
(b)
x
2
+ (
y
+ 3
/
2)
2
= 9
/
4
,r
=
3sin
θ
(c)
Figure 11.1.18,
a
= 1
,n
= 3
,r
= sin3
θ
19. (a)
Figure 11.1.18,
a
= 3
,n
= 2
,r
= 3sin2
θ
(b)
y
-axis and Theorem 11.1.1(b), the equation is of the form
r
=
a
±
b
sin
θ
. The cartesian points (3
,
0) and (0
,
5) give
a
= 3 and 5 =
a
+
b
, so
b
= 2 and
r
= 3 + 2sin
θ
.
(c)
Example 8,
r
2
= 9cos2
θ
20. (a)
Example 6 rotated through
π/
a
= 3
,r
= 3
3sin
θ
(b)
Figure 11.1.18,
a
= 1
,r
= cos5
θ
(c)
x
2
+ (
y
2)
2
= 4,
r
= 4sin
θ

Exercise Set 11.1 449
21.
Line
2
22.
Line
(
23.
Circle
3
24.
4
Circle
25.
6
Circle
26.
12
Cardioid
27.
Circle
12
28.
42
Cardioid
29.
Cardioid
36
30.
510
Cardioid
31.
48
Cardioid
32.
131
Limaçon
33.
12
Cardioid
34.
174
Lima
ç
on
35.
321
Lima
ç
on
36.
423
Limaçon
37.
Lima
ç
on
317
38.
258
Lima
ç
on
39.
35
Lima
ç
on
7
40.
317
Lima
ç
on
41.
Lemniscate
3
42.
1
Lemniscate
43.
Lemniscate
4
44.
Spiral
2
p
4
p
6
p
8
p