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Guidelines for Effic in Pumping Ver2 Rev 12.07

Guidelines for Effic in Pumping Ver2 Rev 12.07

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water pumping energy saving guidelines
water pumping energy saving guidelines

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Published by: Gonuguntla Kondala Rao on Sep 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Increasingly irregular monsoon rains, growing populations, and rising energy tariffs, leave municipalofficials with the ever greater challenge of meeting urban water demand in a cost effective manner.Often options are limited, and many Indian municipalities must pump water over long distances,requiring the costly conveyance infrastructure and on-going maintenance costs associated with thesesystems. Municipalities without the means to make these investments are forced into the difficultsituation of simply not meeting user needs, often supplying water just a few days each week.Municipal water pumping involves substantial energy use which constitutes a significant proportionof the property tax revenues of the ULBs. Energy Studies conducted under DFID funded APUSP projectrevealed that municipal energy costs range from 35% to 217% of property tax revenues and that a potential minimum energy saving of 12.63% of property tax revenues can be achieved through energyconservation and efficiency measures. Thus cost savings through energy conservation and efficiencyimprovement would lead to significant reduction of burden on the municipality and help the ULB inusing the savings for improved O&M or in providing better services to the citizens and in improvingenvironmental sustainability through reduction of green house gas emissions.They also revealed that if we spend 1/3
of the total amount we can achieve 80% of potential savingsthrough NO-COST and LOW-COST actions like:i)rationalizing Contracted Maximum Demand by revising agreement with DISCOMii)providing capacitors to enhance power factor (PF) and thus avoiding Low PF surchargeiii)segregating Light and Fan loads from pumping loads thus preventing higher tariff fo pumping loads also etc.
2.Optimizing use of water & power
Energy consumption in most water systems worldwide could be reduced by at least 25 percentthrough cost-effective efficiency actions. As per the Energy Studies conducted in 7 towns, the cost of implementation of energy efficiency measures and its annual savings and projected figures are for all118 municipalities are as follows.TownsPopulation inLakhs as pe2001 censusImplementation Costs of Energy Efficiencymeasures in Lakhs of RsAnnual Savings inLakhs of Rs7 Towns22.22332.23
118 Towns 143.142096.14*
(* Projections only)
The above figures themselves tell the potentiality for the power savings through taking up EnergyEfficiency Measures. Unfortunately, relatively little attention has been given to reducing energy use inmunicipal water systems. If we continue on the current path, energy consumption by municipal water utilities will double as well.The city of Pune quickly identified more than Rs.70 lakh of energy savings opportunities after kicking off an energy efficiency program; it has only managed to implement one-fifth of the projects.1
The guidelines are prepared for Optimization of Energy consumption and efficiency improvements inPumping Systems and Street Lighting based on the Energy Studies conducted by Engineering Staff College of India (ESCI), Hyderabad and The Energy Resource Institute (TERI), Bangalore. Firstly, the pumping systems are discussed and detailed tables are given for opportunities for energysavings/efficiency and actions to be taken for achieving the benefits.
4.Well Designed Pumping Systems
The study of entire systems is more important than the study of individual component for arriving themost energy efficient pumping systemi)Selection of motorsii)Selection of Pumps to matchHead/Flow requirementsiii)Improving Efficiency of Pumpsiv)Number of Pumps in a systemv)Optimizing Piping Designvi)Leakage and loss controlvii)Preventative Maintenanceviii)Monitoring and Control
Motors can run without problems for 20 years or more with good protection and routinemaintenance. However if they are running inefficiently, it is worthwhile replacing them as running costsare much more than first costs. Motors can be considered as consumable items and not capital items,considering the current energy prices.Even a small difference in efficiency can make a significant difference in running costWhen economically justified, motors may be replaced, even if these have been installed
01020304050607080901000 25 50 75 100
% Load
   %   E   f   f   i  c   i  e  n  c  y   &   P  o  w  e  r   f  a  c   t  o  r
EfficiencyPower factor 
Fig 1Fig 1 shows that variations of motor efficiency and power factor with load. It may be seen thatefficiency is nearly constant up to 40% of shaft load and then drops sharply at lower loads. However  power factor drops continuously with shaft load. The efficiency of motors operating at loads below 40%is likely to be poor and energy savings are possible by replacing these with properly sized motors.2
Even a small difference in efficiency can make a significant difference in running cost. Wheneconomically justified, motors may be replaced, even if these have been installed
 S.N oFactors affecting efficiency Action/ RemedyBenefits
 Long  /Medium/Short termmeasures
1Oversized MotorsSelection of correct sizemotors1.Huge investments saving2.Less running costs3.Good PFL2Idle/redundant runningof motorsStop the motors working below capacitySavings of unnecessary power consumptionS3Old and inefficientmotorsEvaluate the economicswith the recurring cost andcapital cost & replace oldmotors with newLong term recurring costs can besavedL3Motor failuresProvide proper protectiondevices and maintain goodworking condition, ensure proper O&MIncrease the life of motorsL4Burnt motor windingsRewinding of motors as per original data, with proper gauge and no. of windingsRecurring rewinding costs can be savedS5Low efficiency motorsUse high efficiency motorsthough they may costmore.Recurring high power bills can be reduced. The extra capitalcost can be recovered from thesaving of electricity bills.L
6.Selection of Pumps and improving efficiency
040801201600 1600 3200 4800 6400
Capacity (lpm)
   P  u  m  p   H  e  a   d   (  m   W   C   )
System CurvePump Curve
Fig 2Fig 2 shows the typical pumping system depicting the operating point for a given pump and systemcharacteristic. The stable operating point is decided by the intersection of pump head/flow curve withsystem head/flow curve. Size the pumps to achieve operation in best efficiency zone under most of theoperating conditions3

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