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GEOMETRICALASPECT~OFAC~YLINDRICALPARABOLICCOLLECTOR
Dr.SatishG.Kandlikar,
Le
ot
urer,
Department
?f
MechanicalEngineeringIndian
Ln
s
t
Itute
of
Technology,BombayBombay-400
076,
IndiaABSTP-ACTCylindricalparaboliccollectorsare
attract
i
vesolarenergycollectiondevices
for
attainingtemperaturesintherange
100-250
0
C.
Thispaperdealswithapracticalconfiguration
0
faparabolicreflector(axisnorth-south)withacircularabsorberlocatedatthefocus.Forthiscase,thegeometricrelationshipsamongvariousparametersareanalysed.Theresultsshouldbeusefulforselectingdifferentparametersoftheparaboliccol1ectorsystemforagivenapplication.
INTRODUCTION
Solarener§1.collectionattemperaturesaround
200
Cwithoutundulyincreasingthecostofcol1ectionoverthatofaflatplatecollectorishighlydesirableastheefficienciesofpowergenerationandrefrigerationsystemsincreasewithtemperature.Differentgeometrieshavebeendevelopedandinvestigatedforobtainingthesetemperaturesofenergycollection,anditseemsthatthecylin-dricalparabolicconcentratingcollectorwouldbethe
s
LmnLes
t
andthemosteconomicdevice.
l
Tabor(
1)
considereddifferentparabolicgeometriessuchassymmetric,tiltedandsymmetricaldiametral.HeidentifiedtheimportantparameterslikeconcentrationratioC,theacceptanceangle
6{
theanglebetweentheaxisoftheparabolaandtheextremeincomingrayswhichCQuldbecollectedattheabsorber)andtherimangle
$.
Hehasshownthatforsmallacceptanceanglesandforrimanglesbetween
45°-700,
thesymmetricsystemgivesthehighestutilisationandconcen-trationfactorsbecausetheeffectoftheshadowoftheabsorberissmall..Butastheacceptanceangleincreases,theeffectbecomesseriousandinthelimitfor
b
=
15
0,
theconcentrationfactorbecomesunity.Howevertheabsorber
Waf3
intheformofaflatplatelocatedatthefocus.Dr.Sanjay
K.
Vij,RandDDivisionJyotiLimited
Baroda-390003,
IndiaLofandDuffie(2)havetriedto
o
p
t
Lm
i
sethefoc~singcollectordesignbyobtainingexpresslonsfortheoptimumarearatioofthereflectorandtheabsorber.Theabsorberinthiscasealsowasaflatplateandtheeffectoftheshadowwasneglected.
(3).(4).(5)
Rabl,HasanandEI-Rafale·andEvansalsoconsideredtheproblemanalytically,buttheresultsareapplicableonlytotheflatabsorbergeometry.
ANALYSIS
ThebasicgeometryofaparaboliccollectorisshowninFigure
1.
TheconcavereflectingsurfaceAOBreceivessolarradiationswhiChmaybeparalleltotheaxisoftheparabolaormakinganangle
0,
theacceptanceangle,withtheaxis.ThereflectingsurfaceAOBisassumedtobespecularlyreflective.Neglectingtheanglesubtendedbythesun'sdiscatthereflectingsurface,alltheradiationsSAparalleltotheaxiswouldbe
re
flectedtowardsthefocus
AF.
Iftheraysarereceivedatanangle[)withtheaxis,theywouldbereflectedalong
AM
makinganangle[)withAF.TheabsorberisintheformofacirculartubewithitscentrecoincidingwiththefocusFoftheparabola.Theaxisofthecollectorisnorth-southandbothdiurnalandseasonaltrackingareincorporated.Whileselectingthegeometryoftheparaboliccollector,onenastoconsiderthefollowingaspects.ba)Concentrationratiodesired)Easeoftrackingarrangementc)Costofthereflectorsurface,supportingstructureandthetrackingarrangement.Theconcentrationratiowillbedecidedbythetemperaturestobeattained.The
-1254-
 
trackingarrangementshouldbeassimpleaspossibleandberelativelyinexpensive.Thesurfaceareaofthereflectingsurfaceshouldbeaslowaspossibleifthecostofthereflectingsurfaceisamajorfactor.Fortheanalysisoftheparabolicgeometry,thefollowingparametershavebeenidenti-fiedasthedecidingfactorsinviewoftheaboveconsiderationsEffectivesnanRimangle
C
ReflectivesurfaceareaAcceptanceangleMinimumabsorberdiameterConcentrationratio,andTrackingtimeTheeffectivespanisequaltothereflec-tivesurfacewidth
2W
minustheshadedwidthoftheabsorber2R(refer]!ligure
1).
Therimangle~ishalftheanglesubtendedbytheedgesofthereflectoratthefocus.Thecurvedlengthofthereflectivesurfaceisgivenby25:;L
t
sec~/2tan¢/2
+
In(sec¢/2
+
-t
an¢/2)
J...
(I)whereListhelatusrectumoftheparabola.Theangle2&istheanglethroughwhichthepara.lLeIbeamsreflectedfromthereflec-tivesurfacewouldbeinterceptedbytheabsorbertubeandaminimumabsorberdiameter2Rminisrequiredtointerceptalltheserays.Thevalueofthisminimumdiameterisgivenby2LsinO2~in
=
1
+
cos
$
(2)
Theanglesubtendedbythesolardiscisnotconsideredhere,butitwouldeffec-tivelyreducetheacceptanceanglebythesolardiscangleforinterceptingallthereflectedrays.Theconcentrationratioisdefinedastheratiooftheeffectivespantotheheatlosingareaofthereceiver.Forthispurpose,thepartoftheabsorbertubenotseeingthereflectorisassumedtobeinsulated(referFigure
1)
andtheabsorbertubealsorotatesalongwiththereflectorduringthediurnaltrackingadjustmentssothatduringanytime,theinsulatedareadoesnotseethereflector.Forthiscase,theconcentrationratioCcanbeshowntobegivenby
1-
(sino/sin~)
C
=
.(3)
sinO
(<Ii
+
90-0
n:
sin~
180
Theabsorber
tube
w
ith
a
di
arne
tCT
0
2Rmi
.is
abletointerceptall
i
rwo'iirrngrays
w
i
t
rnnanan171
0
f
~~6.Inotherwordsasthesunmoves
this
oalltheroetereachabsorberwithoutretrackingofthecollectordurperiod.Ifthean20
ie)
large,somesortof
.int
e
rtm
eottr:lckiop:maybepossibleaodthe
tl'npin
rva].betweentwosuchconsecutiverack
ng
adjustments,de
f
ineda~)the
t
rackin
t
irn-
Tisgivenby
T=[3xo...(4)
DISCUSSIONANDCONCLUSIONf'romthereLa
t
rons
deve]
In
t
h
e
previoussection,theec
t
ofvariousparametersonthecollectordesignisnows
t
udi.ed,Themaximumconcentration
r-at
i
oforanabsorberwithoutinsulationis
ta
in
edobviouslyfararimang]e
0
f.
Theconcentrationratiocanbe
c8.1
culatedsimplybytakingtheratiooftheeffectivespanandthesurfaceareaoftheabsorbertube.r'o
r-
the'caseofapartlyinsulatedabsorber,the
vi
luosofconcentrationratioforv
a.r
t
ousrimanglesandacceptanceanzLesarpcalculatedbvusingequation(3).'Theseare
zi
ven
i'~
Table-l.
'l'abLe-T
MaximumConcentrationFactorPossibleforGivenRimAngleandAcceptanceA.wde
~
61
1
0
2.5
0
5°
7.5
0
90°17.77.063.282.2180°lE.77.393.572.3170°19.17.503.602.3360
0
18.67.32
:3.54
2.2750
0
17.76.883.302.1140°16.06.002.82
1
7730
0
13.95.102.361.4420°9.83.661.61.06
Itcanbeseenthattheconcentrationratioismaximumforrimanglesofabout
70
0
inallthefourcases.
The
concen-trationratioobtainedforanyrimangleishigherthanthecorrespondingvalueswithoutabsorberinsulation.Theaccep-tanceangleandconsequentlythetrackingtimearesolelydecidedbytheconcen-trationratiodesired,whichinturnis
-1255-
 
fix:ed
by
themax
i
mumtemperaturesdesired.Thesameconcentrattonratiomaybe
obt
al
«
with
rimsotherthan70°,but
corresno
acceptanceanglesarereduced.
'I'h
eabsorbertubeshouldbeassmallas
oo
ss
Io
Letoreducethe
h
eatlosses.Theminimum
ab
sorberdiameterdependsontheacceptanceandtherimangleoftheparabola.
The
variationofth.eratioof
therni
nimumaoso
1'081'
diametertothelatus
r-e
ct
w
i
the
r'i
m
e
ofthe
na.r-ab
oLa
['e
2
for
fourval{leDof6.
e
incn~af3es,the
rrrin.i
mumclbsorber
d
erincreases.Also
.ind
io
abadonhe
x:
aRis
is
theratioof
W
tothe
JatusTf':'ctum
L.
(1)
As
Taborpointedout,someformoftrac,dM
t
r
s
e
ssen
t
La'l
forconcentratingcollectors.Thebetterthetrackingarrangement,t'wmorewillbetheenergy
colLe
o
ti
on.
A
continuous
di
urn
aL
trackingonthecolectorwithaxisnorth-southwould
elf'mo
st
desirablefrom
max
i.murn
('nerlIJ
collectionstandpoint,butmayprovetobemoreex:pen,'3ive.
If
largeracceptance'Jnglesareaccommodated,thensomesortofmanual
t
r-ack
i
ncouldbedoneatsomereasonab1p.timeintervals.ThismaybedesirFlblp.incertainapplicationslike'Nat
r-
r
DU
inruralarea.
Pr-o
mthisview,
a
8rge
I'
a
oceptanceangleisdesirable.Ji'i!"ure
3
showsthetracking
c
i
merdLfferentgeometries.
The
costofthecurvedsurfaceoftheret'lectormayalsobecomeanimportant
fac
to
r~':lnce"rorLargerrimangles,therat
.io
of
t
he
curvedsurfaceareatotheprojectedareaislarger.Thisratiois
o
Lo
tt
cdasafunctionofrimanglein
:B'igure
4.
'I'h
esccurvesandthevaluesgiveninT
Fib
1e
co
uLdbeusedasaguideinselec-tingthemptryofaparaboliccollector.
Po
r
e
xae,ifaconcentrationratioof3.6isdesired,onecouldrefer~oT~ble
1,
takethe
o
nt
i.mumrimangleof70
an
read()
=
50.
FromPigure
3,
theratioofthereflectorareatotheprojectedareaisobtainedas
1.
08
andfromFigure4,R/2IYisinterpolatedas0.092and
rr
==
40
minutes.HeferringtoJi'igure2onegets2Rmin/Las
0.13
andW/L,as0.698.Afterdecidingthewidth
N
fromother
co
ns
i
de
r-at
i.onsalltheparameterscouldbeworkedout.Iftheabsorbertubewasnotnartlyinsulatedasintheaboveexample,onewouldgetaconcentrationratioofonly3.1forthesamerimangleof70
0
andacceptanceangleof5°.Theratioofthereflectivesurfaceareatotheprojectedareais1.15asagainst1.08intheabove
-1256-
example.Ontheotherhand,atarimangleof90
0,
whichisoptimumforanuninsulatedabsorber,a
concerrt
r-a.tLonratioof:5.3;3
is
obtainedfor
0
=::
50.
Thisclearlyindicatestheimorovementsobtainedbyusingapartlyinsulatedabsorber.Howeverbeforearrivingatthefinalgeometry,one
h
astocarefullyanalysethetemperatures
Lrrterid
ed,costofthecomponents,andtherelativemeritsanddE,rnerjtsoftheabsorberinsulation
and
theintermittenttraCking.Theanalysiswouldbefurthermodifiediftheinfluenceofthegeometryin
o
p
t
i.nusLngtheV'J~rmalnerformanceofthecollector~2,6,7
IS
cons:idered.NOMENCLATUREConcentrationratioLatusrectumoftheparabola,
m
Radiusoftheabsorbertube,
m
Minimum
r-adius
oftheabsorbertube
re
ou
i
restointerceptalltherefJ'ectedrayswithin(;,
mRe
fLect
0
rsurfacearea,
m
2Trackingtime,min.Acceptanceangle,degreesRimangle,degrees
S
T
o
¢
RKF'ERENCES1.Tabor,
H.:
'Stationarymirrorsystemsforsolarcollectors'.SolarEnergy,
g,
1,27-33,
19R8.
2.
AriRabl:'Comnarisonofsolarconcentrators'.SolarEnergy,]~,2,93-111,1976.
3.
Hassan,K.E.andElRafaie,
M.F.:
'Theoreticalperformanceofcylindricalparabolicsolarconcentrators'.SolarEnergy,
15,3,
219-244,1973.
4.
Lof,
G.
O.and
Du
f
fj
e,
J.
A.:'Optimisationoffocusingsolarcollectordesign'.ASMETrans.,Ser.A,85,221-228,1963.--5.Evans,
D.
E.:'Ontheperfo
rrnan
ce
0
fcylindriCalparabolicsolarconcen-tratorswithflatabsorbers'.SolarEnergy,19,
4,
379-385,1977.6.Edenburn,
M.VI.:'
Perfo
rman
ceanalysisofacylindricalparabolicfocusingcollectorandcomparisonwithexperimentalresults'.SolarEnergy,18,5,437-444,1976.7.Duffie,J.A.
and
Beckman,
W.A.
'Solarenergythermalprocesses'.Wiley:Inter\)QiencePublications,New
1:
°
rk,I\!'14

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