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7708d_c02_040-099

7708d_c02_040-099

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Published by: api_user_11797_Sendy on Oct 14, 2008
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12/11/2013

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Visible and infrared image pair from a
NOAA satellite using a technique developed at NASA/GSPC.
1

An image of hurricane Allen viewed via satellite: Although there is
considerable motion and structure to a hurricane, the pressure variation
in the vertical direction is approximated by the pressure-depth
relationship for a static fluid.

2
1
Photograph courtesy of A. F. Hasler [Ref. 7].
2
2
Fluid Statics

In this chapter we will consider an important class of problems in which the fluid is either at rest or moving in such a manner that there is no relative motion between adjacent parti- cles. In both instances there will be no shearing stresses in the fluid, and the only forces that develop on the surfaces of the particles will be due to the pressure. Thus, our principal con- cern is to investigate pressure and its variation throughout a fluid and the effect of pressure on submerged surfaces. The absence of shearing stresses greatly simplifies the analysis and, as we will see, allows us to obtain relatively simple solutions to many important practical problems.

41
2.1
Pressure at a Point

As we briefly discussed in Chapter 1, the term pressure is used to indicate the normal force per unit area at a given point acting on a given plane within the fluid mass of interest. A question that immediately arises is how the pressure at a point varies with the orientation of the plane passing through the point. To answer this question, consider the free-body diagram, illustrated in Fig. 2.1, that was obtained by removing a small triangular wedge of fluid from some arbitrary location within a fluid mass. Since we are considering the situation in which there are no shearing stresses, the only external forces acting on the wedge are due to the pressure and the weight. For simplicity the forces in thex direction are not shown, and the

zaxis is taken as the vertical axis so the weight acts in the negative zdirection. Although we

are primarily interested in fluids at rest, to make the analysis as general as possible, we will allow the fluid element to have accelerated motion. The assumption of zero shearing stresses will still be valid so long as the fluid element moves as a rigid body; that is, there is no rel- ative motion between adjacent elements.

There are no shear-
ing stresses present
in a fluid at rest.

The equations of motion1Newton\u2019s second law,
2in they andz directions are,
respectively,
where
and
are the average pressures on the faces, and are the fluid specific
multiplied by an appropriate area to obtain the force generated by the pressure. It follows
from the geometry that
so that the equations of motion can be rewritten as
Since we are really interested in what is happening at a point, we take the limit as
and
approach zero1while maintaining the angle2, and it follows that
or
The angle was arbitrarily chosen so we can conclude that the pressure at
a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent of direction as long as there are no
shearing stresses present. This important result is known as Pascal\u2019s lawnamed in honor of
Blaise Pascal11623\u201316622, a French mathematician who made important contributions in

the field of hydrostatics. In Chapter 6 it will be shown that for moving fluids in which there is relative motion between particles1so that shearing stresses develop2 the normal stress at a point, which corresponds to pressure in fluids at rest, is not necessarily the same in all di- rections. In such cases the pressure is defined as thea v e rage of any three mutually perpen- dicular normal stresses at the point.

u
ps\ue000py\ue000pz.
py\ue000 ps
pz\ue000 ps
u
dz
dx, dy,
pz\ue001ps\ue0001raz\ue002g2dz
2
py\ue001ps\ue000ray
dy
2
dy\ue000 ds cos u
dz\ue000 ds sin u
ay, az
r
g
pz
ps, py,
aFz\ue000 pzdxdy\ue001 psdxdscosu\ue001 g dx dy dz
2
\ue000r dx dy dz
2
az
aFy\ue000 pydxdz\ue001 psdxdssinu\ue000 r dx dy dz
2
ay
F\ue000ma
42IChapter 2/ Fluid Statics
\u03b4
\u03b8
\u03b8
ps
y
z
________
2
\u03b4y
\u03b4x
\u03b4s
\u03b4
\u03b4
s
x
pz
\u03b4
\u03b4
y
x
py
\u03b4
\u03b4
z
x
x
z
\u03b4x \u03b4y \u03b4z
\u03b3
IFIGURE 2.1

Forces on an arbi-
trary wedge-shaped
element of fluid.

The pressure at a
point in a fluid at
rest is independent
of direction.

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