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Marco Referencial

Marco Referencial



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Published by: api-3698783 on Oct 14, 2008
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4.1 Marco te\u00f3rico

Across many theories and interpretations about the learning strategies in learning processes regarding a foreign language learning, it becomes clear the intentions that all the well-known authors of such subject propose, as they have the same target to consider the learning language strategies as means that enable students accelerate and increase their knowledge either outside or inside the classroom. Thus, in this state of the art , the main conceptions about the learning strategies , considering aspects such as: effectiveness, feasibility, development etc, will be shown through both views and concerns of the most relevant authors of this subject: Rebecca Oxford(1990), Weinstein and Meyer(1986), Rubin(1975), Naiman , Frohlich, Stern, and Todesco(1975), Salazar y Retamoso(2004), and Brown, (1994) whose researches have been focused on the individuals\u00b4 cognitive stages and levels which every human being is. However, it is important to focus deeper on Rebecca \u00b4s Oxford theories because her proposals appear to be more clear and better focused to this research process.

A general Schema providing general definitions for Learning
strategies and language learning strategies

The learning strategies have been given many definitions; these definitions have clearly changed as new studies and advances on the pedagogy field have been pursued, therefore, It is relevant to show some meanings and considerations that are meaningful in order to understand the nature of the term \u00a8the learning strategies\u201d. In a first instance, the leaning strategies were defined as \u201cbehaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning\u201d(Weinstein and Mayer/1986) ,that somehow, modify the learning process, but later Mayer became more specific to define the learning strategies as \u201cbehaviours of a learner that are intended to influence the learner

processes information. As matter of fact, these definitions imply that learning strategies involve a great amount of fields of knowledge, and if the learner becomes proficient in applying them in any situation, his/her learning process will, undoubtedly, succeed.

On the other hand, Salazar y Retamozo(2004) suggest that learning strategies are a set of activities, techniques and means which are planned according to the students\u00b4 needs , objectives and nature of what they learn, in order to improve the learning process. Nevertheless, Brandt (1998) explains the importance of learning strategies, considering these as \u201c strategies which shift according to study objectives and previous learning process of the students\u201d , being this, closely related with the proficiency abilities and limitations of every one

However, the concern of this research project is aimed at the language learning strategies ,and therefore, the meanings of such topic have to be studied as narrowly and accurately as possible(But without forgetting that the language strategies is a catchall term whose implications have a great effect in too many fields of knowledge( Oxford, 1990). Consequently, a first definition appears as follows: \u201cLearning strategies are an attempt to develop linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the target language \u2013 to incorporate these into one\u00b4s interlanguage competence\u201d (Tarone, 1983). This definition, gets closer to the main topic of Language Learning Strategies, as it establishes that such language learning strategies contribute to maximize or increase the linguistic competence itself, and the oral competence to be able to interchange knowledge and have fruitful channels of communication in certain community ( Sociolinguistic competence).

On the other hand, it can be found two more definitions to the term language learning strategies. \u201clearning strategies are strategies which contribute to the development of the language system which the

learner constructs and affect the learning directly\u00a8 (Rubin/1987), consequently O\u00b4Malley and Chamot (1985), came to define learning strategies as \u00a8 The special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn, or retain new information\u00a8. These definitions have the same aim; They propose that the learning language strategies, influence directly to the way the learner learns a foreign language and , therefore, gains communicative competence.

Brown (1994) suggests that the adolescents\u00b4 mental capacity \u201cadds intellectual capacity adds abstract operational thought around the age of twelve. Therefore some sophisticated intellectual processing is increasingly possible\u201d. Then, a list of aspects of how the student\u00b4s learning process is influenced according to the kind of input, is presented below:


\u201c Attention spans are lengthening as a result of intellectual maturation, but once again, with many diversions present in a teenager\u00b4s life, those potential attention spans can be easily shortened


Varieties of sensory input are still important, but again increasing capacities for abstraction lessen the essential nature of appealing to all five senses

Complex problems can be solved with logical thinking

Factors sorroundind ego, self-image, self-esteem are at the pinnacle. Teens are ultrasensitive to how others perceive their changing physical and emotional selves along with their mental capabilities.

5. \u201cSecondary school students are of course becoming increasingly adult-like in their ability to make those occasional diversions from the \u201chere and now\u201d nature of immediate communicative contexts to dwell on a grammar point or vocabulary item\u201d (Brown, 1994).

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