(Dörnyei & Murphey, 2003).
1. There is some interaction among group members.
2. Group members perceive themselves as a distinct unit and demonstrate a level of
commitment to it.
3. Group members share some purpose or goal for being together.
4. The group endures for a reasonable period of time (i.e. not only for minutes).
5. The group has developed some sort of a salient ‘internal structure’, which includes:
the regulation of entry and departure into/from the group;
rules and standards of behavior for members;
relatively stable interpersonal relationship patterns and an established status hierarchy;
some division of group roles.
Students display individual accountability in pair/group work, as well as interdependence.
Students help each other to learn.
Students enjoy working together with various members: multicultural, multilingual, and
Students joke and laugh together, not at each other.
There is an audible “buzz” before, during, and after class.
Pair/group work is started quickly and easily.
Students are aware of each other’s presence and absence.
Students are aware of each other’s personalities/strengths/weaknesses and other aspects.
Students sit close to and are in close contact with each other.
Use ice-breakers at the start of the semester.
Create a class “roster” (Name, email, birthday) and class photo for the students.
Create classroom agreements/contracts/constitution collaboratively.
Explicitly state the rationale for collaboration and cooperation.
Explicitly state teacher’s and students’ roles
Encourage students to set up “buddy system”.
Engage students in warm-up conversation in pairs leading to whole class conversation.
How do you feel when you speak/read/write in English?
Show enthusiasm and provide praise for responses, comments, and ideas.
Teach/practice/use language necessary for working together .
Use a variety of interactive getting-to-know-you games.
Don’t make a big deal about wrong answers.
Cocktail party/Mingling/Mixer (See p. 7 for sample)
Ask about each other’s interests
Find someone who
Interview and write a biography about a classmate
Name, hometown, language ability, food likes
Student-generated questions about classmate and culture
Pair/Group interest comparisons
Find 3 things in common
Find commonalities in goals
What does your name mean?
Who gave you your name?
Name bingo – Bingo with names of classmates as answers
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