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Applications of Neutrosophic Logic to Robotics. An Introduction, by Florentin Smarandache and Luige Vladareanu

Applications of Neutrosophic Logic to Robotics. An Introduction, by Florentin Smarandache and Luige Vladareanu

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Applications of Neutrosophic Logic to Robotics
An Introduction
Florentin Smarandache
University of New MexicoGallup, NM 87301, USAE-mail:smarand@unm.edu 
Luige Vl
ă
d
ă
reanu
Romanian Academy, Institute of Solid Mechanics
 
15 C-tin Mille, 010141 Bucharest 1, Romania
 
E-mail:luigiv@arexim.ro
 
 Abstract 
 — 
 
In this paper we present the N-norms/N-conorms inneutrosophic logic and set as extensions of T-norms/T-conormsin fuzzy logic and set.Then we show some applications of the neutrosophic logic torobotics.
 Keywords: N-norm, N-conorm, N-pseudonorm, N- pseudoconorm, Neutrosophic set, Neutrosophic logic, Robotics
I.
 
DEFINITION OF NEUTROSOPHIC SET
 Let T, I, F be real standard or non-standard subsets of ]
-
0, 1
+
[,with sup T = t_sup, inf T = t_inf,sup I = i_sup, inf I = i_inf,sup F = f_sup, inf F = f_inf,and n_sup = t_sup+i_sup+f_sup,n_inf = t_inf+i_inf+f_inf.Let U be a universe of discourse, and M a set included inU. An element x from U is noted with respect to the set Mas x(T, I, F) and belongs to M in the following way: it is t%true in the set, i% indeterminate (unknown if it is or not) inthe set, and f% false, where t varies in T, i varies in I, f varies in F ([1], [3]).Statically T, I, F are subsets, but dynamically T, I, F arefunctions/operators depending on many known or unknown parameters.II.
 
DEFINITION OF NEUTROSOPHIC LOGIC
 In a similar way we define the Neutrosophic Logic:A logic in which each proposition x is T% true, I%indeterminate, and F% false, and we write it x(T,I,F), whereT, I, F are defined above.III.
 
PARTIAL ORDER 
 We define a
 partial order 
 
relationship
on theneutrosophic set/logic in the following way:x(T
1
, I
1
, F
1
)
y(T
2
, I
2
, F
2
) iff (if and only if)T
1
 
T
2
, I
1
 
I
2
, F
1
 
F
2
for crisp components.And, in general, for subunitary set components:x(T
1
, I
1
, F
1
)
y(T
2
, I
2
, F
2
) iff inf T
1
 
inf T
2
, sup T
1
 
sup T
2
,inf I
1
 
inf I
2
, sup I
1
 
sup I
2
,inf F
1
 
inf F
2
, sup F
1
 
sup F
2
.If we have mixed - crisp and subunitary - components,or only crisp components, we can transform any crispcomponent, say “a” with a
[0,1] or a
]
-
0, 1
+
[, into asubunitary set [a, a]. So, the definitions for subunitary setcomponents should work in any case.IV.
 
 N-
 NORM AND N
-
CONORM
 As a generalization of T-norm and T-conorm from theFuzzy Logic and Set, we now introduce the N-norms and N-conorms for the Neutrosophic Logic and Set.
 A.
 
 N-norm
 N
n
: ( ]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ )
2
 
]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ N
n
(x(T
1
,I
1
,F
1
), y(T
2
,I
2
,F
2
)) = (N
n
T(x,y), N
n
I(x,y), N
n
F(x,y)),where N
n
T(.,.), N
n
I(.,.), N
n
F(.,.) are the truth/membership,indeterminacy, and respectively falsehood/nonmembershipcomponents. N
n
have to satisfy, for any x, y, z in the neutrosophiclogic/set M of the universe of discourse U, the followingaxioms:a) Boundary Conditions: N
n
(x,
0
) =
0
, N
n
(x,
1
) = x. b) Commutativity: N
n
(x, y) = N
n
(y, x).c) Monotonicity: If x
y, then N
n
(x, z)
N
n
(y, z).d) Associativity: N
n
(N
n
(x, y), z) = N
n
(x, N
n
(y, z)).There are cases when not all these axioms are satisfied, for example the associativity when dealing with theneutrosophic normalization after each neutrosophicoperation. But, since we work with approximations, we cancall these N-pseudo-norms, which still give good results in practice. N
n
represent the
and 
operator in neutrosophic logic, andrespectively the
intersection
operator in neutrosophic settheory.Let J
{T, I, F} be a component.
 
Most known N-norms, as in fuzzy logic and set the T-norms, are:• The Algebraic Product N-norm: N
n
algebraic
J(x, y) = x · y• The Bounded N-Norm: N
n
 bounded
J(x, y) = max{0, x + y
 1}• The Default (min) N-norm: N
n
min
J(x, y) = min{x, y}.
 
A general example of N-norm would be this.Let x(T
1
, I
1
, F
1
) and y(T
2
, I
2
, F
2
) be in the neutrosophicset/logic M. Then: N
n
(x, y) = (T
1
/\T
2
, I
1
\/I
2
, F
1
\/F
2
)where the “/\” operator, acting on two (standard or non-standard) subunitary sets, is a N-norm (verifying the above N-norms axioms); while the “\/” operator, also acting ontwo (standard or non-standard) subunitary sets, is a N-conorm (verifying the below N-conorms axioms).For example, /\ can be the Algebraic Product T-norm/N-norm, so T
1
/\T
2
= T
1
·T
2
(herein we have a product of twosubunitary sets – using simplified notation); and \/ can bethe Algebraic Product T-conorm/N-conorm, so T
1
\/T
2
=T
1
+T
2
-T
1
·T
2
(herein we have a sum, then a product, andafterwards a subtraction of two subunitary sets).Or /\ can be any T-norm/N-norm, and \/ any T-conorm/N-conorm from the above and below; for examplethe easiest way would be to consider the
min
for crispcomponents (or 
inf 
for subset components) and respectively
max
for crisp components (or 
 sup
for subset components).If we have crisp numbers, we can at the endneutrosophically normalize.
 B.
 
 N-conorm
 N
c
: ( ]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ )
2
 
]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ × ]
-
0,1
+
[ N
c
(x(T
1
,I
1
,F
1
), y(T
2
,I
2
,F
2
)) = (N
c
T(x,y), N
c
I(x,y), N
c
F(x,y)),where N
n
T(.,.), N
n
I(.,.), N
n
F(.,.) are the truth/membership,indeterminacy, and respectively falsehood/nonmembershipcomponents. N
c
have to satisfy, for any x, y, z in the neutrosophiclogic/set M of universe of discourse U, the followingaxioms:a) Boundary Conditions: N
c
(x, 1) = 1, N
c
(x, 0) = x. b) Commutativity: N
c
(x, y) = N
c
(y, x).c) Monotonicity: if x
y, then N
c
(x, z)
N
c
(y, z).d) Associativity: N
c
(N
c
(x, y), z) = N
c
(x, N
c
(y, z)).There are cases when not all these axioms are satisfied, for example the associativity when dealing with theneutrosophic normalization after each neutrosophicoperation. But, since we work with approximations, we cancall these N-pseudo-conorms, which still give good resultsin practice. N
c
represent the
or 
operator in neutrosophic logic, andrespectively the
union
operator in neutrosophic set theory.Let J
{T, I, F} be a component.
 
Most known N-conorms, as in fuzzy logic and set the T-conorms, are:• The Algebraic Product N-conorm: N
c
algebraic
J(x, y) = x + y
x · y• The Bounded N-conorm: N
c
 bounded
J(x, y) = min{1, x + y}• The Default (max) N-conorm: N
c
max
J(x, y) = max{x, y}.A general example of N-conorm would be this.Let x(T
1
, I
1
, F
1
) and y(T
2
, I
2
, F
2
) be in the neutrosophicset/logic M. Then: N
n
(x, y) = (T
1
\/T
2
, I
1
/\I
2
, F
1
/\F
2
)Where – as above - the “/\” operator, acting on two(standard or non-standard) subunitary sets, is a N-norm(verifying the above N-norms axioms); while the “\/”operator, also acting on two (standard or non-standard)subunitary sets, is a N-conorm (verifying the above N-conorms axioms).For example, /\ can be the Algebraic Product T-norm/N-norm, so T
1
/\T
2
= T
1
·T
2
(herein we have a product of twosubunitary sets); and \/ can be the Algebraic Product T-conorm/N-conorm, so T
1
\/T
2
= T
1
+T
2
-T
1
·T
2
(herein we havea sum, then a product, and afterwards a subtraction of twosubunitary sets).Or /\ can be any T-norm/N-norm, and \/ any T-conorm/N-conorm from the above; for example the easiestway would be to consider the
min
for crisp components (or 
inf 
for subset components) and respectively
max
for crispcomponents (or 
 sup
for subset components).If we have crisp numbers, we can at the endneutrosophically normalize.Since the min/max (or inf/sup) operators work the bestfor subunitary set components, let’s present their definitions below. They are extensions from subunitary intervals{defined in [3]} to any subunitary sets. Analogously we cando for all neutrosophic operators defined in [3].Let x(T
1
, I
1
, F
1
) and y(T
2
, I
2
, F
2
) be in the neutrosophicset/logic M.
C.
 
More Neutrosophic Operators
 Neutrosophic Conjunction/Intersection:x/\y=(T
/\
,I
/\
,F
/\
),where inf T
/\
= min{inf T
1
, inf T
2
}sup T
/\
= min{sup T
1
, sup T
2
}inf I
/\
= max{inf I
1
, inf I
2
}sup I
/\
= max{sup I
1
, sup I
2
}inf F
/\
= max{inf F
1
, inf F
2
}sup F
/\
= max{sup F
1
, sup F
2
} Neutrosophic Disjunction/Union:x\/y=(T
\/
,I
\/
,F
\/
),where inf T
\/
= max{inf T
1
, inf T
2
}sup T
\/
= max{sup T
1
, sup T
2
}inf I
\/
= min{inf I
1
, inf I
2
}sup I
\/
= min{sup I
1
, sup I
2
}inf F
\/
= min{inf F
1
, inf F
2
}sup F
\/
= min{sup F
1
, sup F
2
} Neutrosophic Negation/Complement:C(x) = (T
C
,I
C
,F
C
),where T
C
= F
1
 inf I
C
= 1-sup I
1
 
 
sup I
C
= 1-inf I
1
 F
C
= T
1
 Upon the above NeutrosophicConjunction/Intersection, we can define the Neutrosophic Containment:We say that the neutrosophic set A is included in theneutrosophic set B of the universe of discourse U,iff for any x(T
A
, I
A
, F
A
)
A with x(T
B
, I
B
, F
B
)
B wehave:inf T
A
 
inf T
B
; sup T
A
 
sup T
B
;inf I
A
 
inf I
B
; sup I
A
 
sup I
B
;inf F
A
 
inf F
B
; sup F
A
 
sup F
B
.
 D.
 
 Remarks
a)
 
The non-standard unit interval ]
-
0, 1
+
[ is merelyused for philosophical applications, especiallywhen we want to make a distinction betweenrelative truth (truth in at least one world) andabsolute truth (truth in all possible worlds), andsimilarly for distinction between relative or absolute falsehood, and between relative or absolute indeterminacy.But, for technical applications of neutrosophic logic and set,the domain of definition and range of the N-norm and N-conorm can be restrained to the normal standard real unitinterval [0, 1], which is easier to use, therefore: N
n
: ( [0,1] × [0,1] × [0,1] )
2
 
[0,1] × [0,1] × [0,1]and N
c
: ( [0,1] × [0,1] × [0,1] )
2
 
[0,1] × [0,1] × [0,1]. b)
 
Since in NL and NS the sum of the components (inthe case when T, I, F are crisp numbers, not sets) isnot necessary equal to 1 (so the normalization isnot required), we can keep the final result un-normalized.But, if the normalization is needed for specialapplications, we can normalize at the end bydividing each component by the sum allcomponents.If we work with intuitionistic logic/set (when theinformation is incomplete, i.e. the sum of the crispcomponents is less than 1, i.e.
 sub-normalized 
), or with paraconsistent logic/set (when the informationoverlaps and it is contradictory, i.e. the sum of crisp components is greater than 1, i.e.
over-normalized 
), we need to define the neutrosophicmeasure of a proposition/set.If x(T,I,F) is a NL/NS, and T,I,F are crisp numbersin [0,1], then the neutrosophic vector norm
 
of variable/set x is the sum of its components: N
vector-norm
(x) = T+I+F. Now, if we apply the N
n
and N
c
to two propositions/sets which maybe intuitionistic or  paraconsistent or normalized (i.e. the sum of components less than 1, bigger than 1, or equal to1), x and y, what should be the neutrosophicmeasure of the results N
n
(x,y) and N
c
(x,y) ?Herein again we have more possibilities:
-
either the product of neutrosophic measures of x and y: N
vector-norm
(N
n
(x,y)) = N
vector-norm
(x)·N
vector-norm
(y),
-
or their average: N
vector-norm
(N
n
(x,y)) = (N
vector-norm
(x) + N
vector-norm
(y))/2,
-
or other function of the initial neutrosophicmeasures: N
vector-norm
(N
n
(x,y)) = f(N
vector-norm
(x), N
vector-norm
(y)), where f(.,.) is a function to be determinedaccording to each application.Similarly for N
vector-norm
(N
c
(x,y)).Depending on the adopted neutrosophic vector norm, after applying each neutrosophic operator the result is neutrosophically normalized. We’dlike to mention that “neutrosophically normalizing”doesn’t mean that the sum of the resulting crispcomponents should be 1 as in fuzzy logic/set or intuitionistic fuzzy logic/set, but the sum of thecomponents should be as above: either equal to the product of neutrosophic vector norms of the initial propositions/sets, or equal to the neutrosophicaverage of the initial propositions/sets vector norms, etc.In conclusion, we neutrosophically normalize theresulting crisp components T`,I`,F` by multiplyingeach neutrosophic component T`,I`,F` with S/(T`+I`+F`), whereS= N
vector-norm
(N
n
(x,y)) for a N-norm or S= N
vector-norm
(N
c
(x,y)) for a N-conorm - as defined above.c)
 
If T, I, F are subsets of [0, 1] the problem of neutrosophic normalization is more difficult.i)
 
If sup(T)+sup(I)+sup(F) < 1, we have an
intuitionistic proposition/set 
.ii)
 
If inf(T)+inf(I)+inf(F) > 1, we have a
 paraconsistent proposition/set 
.iii)
 
If there exist the crisp numbers t
T, i
I,and f 
F such that t+i+f =1, then we can saythat we have a
 plausible normalized  proposition/set 
.But in many such cases, besides thenormalized particular case showed herein, wealso have crisp numbers, say t
1
 
T, i
1
 
I, and
1
F such that t
1
+i
1
+f 
1
< 1 (incomplete

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